Cellphone. History and Evolution of Cell Phones

Cell phones  are so called basically because the physical area they cover is in the form of cells . The origin of the cell phone is said to have been around 1973  when the mass consumer electronics company Motorola launched the first portable cell phone , which was marketed under the name  Motorola DynaTac 8000X. Evolution of Mobile Phones history of mobile phones first mobile phone 1973 cell phone history facts first modern smartphone

Currently,  the number of cell phone models entering the market is practically incalculable, and their sales generate hundreds of billions of dollars a year,  making them the most used electronic device in the world.

As we can see in any city or town, it  is almost impossible to find a person without a cell phone or smartphone in hand , such is the degree of penetration that this device has had among us, and it is not for less,  since thanks to the tasks which is capable of fulfilling, and the number of important functions it incorporates, we can improve our lifestyle , increasing our productivity and shortening time.

This last decade has seen the birth of the smartphone as we know it today, a  mixture of computer and cell phone , offering features that we could not even dream of in the days of the Nokia 3210, for example.

We recommend you read History and Evolution of USB

How is a cell phone made up? evolution of mobile phones

The parts of a traditional cell phone are as follows:

  • circuit board
  • antenna
  • keyboard
  • LCD screen – liquid crystal display
  • battery
  • microphone
  • speaker

Functions of a cell phone evolution of mobile phones

Cell phones have a wide variety of functions. To mention a few, depending on each type of cell phone:

  • stores contact information
  • manage an updated schedule of commitments
  • send and receive emails
  • 3D games
  • send and receive text messages
  • instant messaging over the internet
  • integration with social networks
  • browse internet sites
  • play MP3 audio and other formats
  • play video and TV online
  • GPS service and maps
  • integration with other devices such as GPS receiver

How a cell phone works evolution of mobile phones

Cell phones,  by operating on radio frequency, innovated to minimize the availability of the RF spectrum . Now, several cell phone tower antennas are used to cover a large geographic area. Each tower (base station) covers a circular area called a cell. A large geographic region is divided into a number of cells, allowing different base stations to use the same channels / frequencies for communication.

Another important aspect of this cell division  is that cell phones need less power to transmit and reach any base station that covers a smaller area . By reducing the energy required for transmission, the size of the battery is reduced and consequently the weight. This contributes to the downsizing of cell phones that would not be possible without cellular technology. history of mobile phones first mobile phone 1973

When  you use your cell phone,  the phone first locates the base station with the strongest signal and requests a channel . The base station allows access to the channel and the call is then accepted. The call is then sent to the local telephone network, if the call is for a common telephone, otherwise it will be transmitted by the mobile network. history of mobile phones first mobile phone 1973

When the cell phone is connected, the SID (System Identification Code) in the control channel equals the SID of the phone. If the SID is identified, the phone understands that the cell is communicating with the local system . The phone sends a registration request, along with the SID and the MTSO keeps track of the phone’s location in the database. If the control does not identify the SID of your phone, then the phone is roaming.

Top cell phone manufacturers evolution of mobile phones

Most of the popular cell phone models on the market are produced by:

  • Manzana
  • Samsung
  • Motorola
  • Huaweii
  • LG
  • Sony
  • HTC
  • ZTE
  • Nokia
  • Alcatel

and many others…

History of the cell phone evolution of mobile phones

It is undoubted that cellular telephony has become in recent years one of the technologies most commonly used  on a daily basis by millions of people around the world. Almost thirty years of constant evolution in mobile personal communications have allowed this device to become  a fundamental part in the daily development of any activity undertaken by the individual.  history of mobile phones first mobile phone 1973

Surely,  along with the Internet, cell phones have become one of the essential elements for the social life of any person , and that is precisely because these fabulous devices bring users a wide variety of benefits, which are increasing day by day. in the new cell phone models, in which additional functions are included to offer the most complete service to the consumer. history of mobile phones first mobile phone 1973

Today we can not only communicate with someone in a conventional way, as we used to do with the traditional   landline phone , but  also mobile phones have given us the possibility of learning about other types of communication, such as popular text messages and multimedia messages.

On the other hand, we cannot fail to mention the inclusion of new platforms, such as the incorporation of the Internet and different modes of connectivity between devices, as well as the added features that cell phones have begun to include for years. first mobile phone 1973

With a mobile phone we not only establish a telephone communication, but we can also take pictures, capture  video , surf the Internet, play games, listen to music and a  host of tasks that we can currently carry out with the terminal.  history of mobile phones  first mobile phone 1973

For all this, in addition to adding the advance in terms of technology behind the physical aspect of the equipment, such as the incorporation of modern multi-touch screens,  virtual keyboards  and others,  the cell phone has become much more than its name indicates, to become a true multifunction device. 

Basic operation of the cell phone evolution of mobile phones

Before starting this exciting journey, it is important to briefly highlight  how the complex technology unfolds behind something that is so common to us , such as mobile telephony. history of mobile phones

This platform works using radio waves, which allow it to carry out the operations to establish communication from the cell phone to the base that transmits the communication. In this way, it is possible to establish different communication modalities, from a conventional chat through a call, through the sending and receiving of a text message, to the most modern functionalities that allow us to always be connected.

The beginnings of cell phones evolution of mobile phones

first mobile phone 1973
first mobile phone 1973

According to the opinion of the experts,  the pioneers in the field of mobile telephony for civil use began to walk their development path in the distant 1940s , when the great advantages that could be reported in the United States were glimpsed the use of this type of technology in the daily life of citizens.

Thus it was that  in the twilight of the 1940s, analogue radio systems began to be used, which worked through amplitude modulation, that is, AM frequencies, and then began to use frequency modulation, that is, FM waves,  thus achieving way a greater range of reach and precision of the service. history of mobile phones

In those early days,  the HF and VHF bands were used, in order to offer the population a means of mobile communication,  which they could take with them when leaving their homes and offices, which implied maintaining constant communication. history of mobile phones  first mobile phone 1973

However,  in those early days of mobile telephony,  the response of consumers was not entirely satisfactory. This was mainly due  to the exaggerated size and weight of the first cell phone equipment, and of course also to the high value of the devices,  which are beyond the economic possibilities of the American middle social class. first mobile phone 1973

One of the first companies that started in the mobile telephony market of those times was the North American Bell, 
through its new service called Bell System Service. history of mobile phones first mobile phone 1973

In general,  this type of device was designed to be used only in automobiles, since the radio equipment was installed inside the trunk of the vehicle,  from where a cable that communicated the telephone receiver inside the driver’s cabin came out. first mobile phone 1973

Despite their low popularity,  these devices remained in force for several decades, precisely from 1946 to 1985,  when important technological changes finally arrived on the market, which managed to make mobile communications evolve by leaps and bounds. first mobile phone 1973

1G: The first generation evolution of mobile phones

Already located in the 21st century, surely when looking at cell phones belonging to the 1G technology era, we will think that they are actually  too large, heavy and uncomfortable equipment, compared to current standards.  first mobile phone 1973

However, it is important to note that in the 80s these devices represented an unprecedented evolution within mobile communications, and for their time they represented a great advance, since  from the so-called first generation, the terminals became more small,  allowing users to move their communication equipment.

On the other hand, this radical change meant the beginning of personal communications, since  from the use of the 1G system, the terminals could be used individually by a single person.  history of mobile phones

The arrival of the First Generation happened in 1981, when the prestigious company  Ericsson launched the 450 MHz Nordic Mobile Telephony system, known by its acronym NMT 450, which operated through the use of analog radio channels, through modulation. on FM frequency.  In this way, the first step emerged to achieve the modern and sophisticated mobile phone systems that are used today. history of mobile phones

In the same decade,  precisely in 1986, the same company incorporated new advances to the communication system,  managing to bring it to the NMT 900 level, which although it worked in a similar way to the previous version, the truth is that it managed to reach frequencies higher, which meant an opening of the mobile telephony market. history of mobile phones cell phone history facts

With the amplitude of the frequencies, it was not only possible to  provide the mobile personal communications service to a significant number of users, but it also gave the starting point for the technological development of improving the portability of telephone equipment. 

It should be noted that in addition to the system created by Ericsson, other developments emerged simultaneously, such as  the Advanced Mobile Phone System and the Total Access Communication System, but they did not achieve the overwhelming success of the NMT. history of mobile phones cell phone history facts

2G: The second generation evolution of mobile phones

After various investigations to further improve the benefits and services that were provided in the field of mobile communications in the mid-80s,  the technology underwent a profound evolution with the emergence of the so-called Second Generation, better known as 2G. history of mobile phones cell phone history facts
The origin of the 2G system took place in the 90s,  when different technologies were incorporated to improve mobile communications, including the GSM, IS-136, iDEN and IS-95 systems. history of mobile phones cell phone history facts

It should be noted that  the change from 1G to 2G represented an important step in the world of mobile telephony, since communications achieved outstanding quality , thanks to the use of the 900 and 1800 MHz frequencies. cell phone history facts
However,  its highest point Significant was undoubtedly the step towards the digitization of communications,  with which mobile telephony managed to achieve excellent voice quality, truly superior to analog communications. cell phone history facts

On the other hand, thanks to innovation in digitization,  it became possible to significantly improve the level of security,  offering users an effective system that protects their privacy. history of mobile phones cell phone history facts

Of course, the introduction of the 2G system  made it possible to simplify the manufacture of cell phones, which reduced their size and began to be manufactured with cheaper materials,  which meant a real decrease in manufacturing costs, and therefore arose increased consumption of the devices, which began to be marketed at affordable prices for the general public. history of mobile phones cell phone history facts

With the arrival of the 2G system, different mobile communication standards emerged , such as D-AMPS in the United States, PDC in Japan, CDMA One in the United States and Asia, and the popular GSM, which over the years became the system. universal. cell phone history facts

GSM technology evolution of mobile phones

With the arrival of Second Generation technology to the world of mobile communications, the popular GSM system, which  stands for Global System for Mobile Communications in Spanish ,  also landed on portable cell phone devices. Communications. cell phone history facts

This technology made it  possible to achieve significant improvements in terms of mobile communications,  since the system was developed based on a series of specific parameters focused on this objective. cell phone history facts

Thanks to the implementation of the GSM system in the 90s,  mobile telephony managed, among other things, to offer a true voice quality achieved through the digital processing of communications, allow the manufacture of more portable  and economical cell phones , and compatibility with the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). cell phone history facts

On the other hand, with the subsequent implementation of said technology at an international level, as a universal standard for mobile communications,  the birth of a truly competitive mobile phone market was made possible, which gave rise to countless operating companies and device manufacturers. . 

As is often the case with standards born within technology,  although the GSM system fulfilled the expectations for years, the truth is that after a while it became an obsolete system,  since it only allowed access to a service voice or data at a low transfer speed, only 9.6 Kbps.

Let us bear in mind that  by the mid-90s, the cell phone market needed another really significant evolution , which would allow the inclusion of multimedia services, which is why a greater data transfer capacity was necessary.

Thus it was that  work began on the development of a new generation of mobile communications, the so-called 3G  that would use CDMA technology, which was currently under development, so it was decided to transform 2G and include updates and necessary changes, giving way to an intermediate system, the so-called transition generation.

2.5G: The Transitional Generation evolution of mobile phones

With the arrival of the transitional generation, which took a previous step while waiting for 3G,  important changes were introduced within the field of cellular telephony, increasing the services offered by 2G up to now.

Thanks to the arrival of 2.5G, mobile devices included two new services. On the one hand, the so-called EMS system, which was basically an improved messaging service, which  among its features allowed some melodies and icons to be included in the messages. For this, EMS were based on what would later become SMS. 

On the other hand,  the MMS service, an acronym for its name Multimedia Messaging System , was incorporated,  which were messages that offered the possibility of including images, sounds, text and videos,  using GPRS technology. 

With the addition of these two innovative services in mobile communications, the transitional generation had to make use of  the incorporation of two important new technologies , such as GPRS and EDGE in those years. 

It should be noted that the GPRS system, which stands for General Packet Radio Service, offers a data transfer speed of 56kbps to 114 kbps, while  the EDGE technology, Enhaced Data rates for GSM Evolution, allows reaching 384 Kbps in speed. transfer.

3G: The third generation

With the advent of the Third Generation, the result of research to increase the transmission and reception capacity of data, in addition to obtaining a better degree of security in communications, it  was possible to have the possibility of connecting to the Internet with all advantages that its use provides for users.

Thanks to all these advances, today it is possible to reach data transmission speeds higher than 7.2 Mbits / s,  which favored the emergence of new implementations on the cell phone, such as downloading program content, video call services, messaging snapshot and the use of email, among many others. 

Although the expansion of 3G technology was slow at first,  the truth is that it has now been widely accepted and its constant advance made possible the development of a new system, the so-called UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System). 

The UMTS system is the immediate successor of GSM technology, which due to the lack of certain technical characteristics to  provide services such as real-time video and audio transmission, complex multimedia functions and voice sound quality in transmissions,  does not it will be able to evolve duly accompanying the development of Third Generation mobiles, points that this new standard does meet.

What is the difference between LTE and 4G

Although this innovative technology  was designed for use in mobile phones, it can also be incorporated into other types of portable devices.  first modern smartphone

For its operation, the UMTS system is based on the use of CDMA technology, which allows it to develop data transmission rates of up to 7.2 Mbits / s

cell phone history facts
cell phone history facts

4G: The fourth generation

There is no doubt that the implementation of this new mobile communications standard has revolutionized the way we use the telephone, allowing us to do things that were previously impossible to do if we were not near a computer. Of course, this has a lot to do with the performance and power of modern smartphones,  which can take full advantage of the speed that 4G offers to send and receive data.

The arrival of this technology on the market offers the user an absolutely successful user experience with any service requested,  including registering for services such as Spotify, Netfix or Google Music  to enjoy audio content and series or movies in high definition and without cuts, all thanks to the high speed that the standard can reach, and without the need for a nearby Wi-Fi signal source.

It also offers SMEs the possibility of having all kinds of services in the cloud,  today an indispensable platform for any business or company that wants to remain in the market. first modern smartphone

As we can see, with the advantages that 4G offers associated with the speed it can reach,  theoretically 100 Mbits / s in motion up to the incredible figure of 1 Gb / s at rest,  we can handle ourselves with much more ease than before, and obtain benefits almost impossible with the previous generation, 3G. In addition to the determining factor related to the increase in speed and convergence that the system supposes,  another important point to highlight is that the new standard offers higher levels of quality of service throughout the extension of the communication,  that is, it will be provided a security cover between the two tips of the terminals. first modern smartphone

Communications currently play a very important role in society,  since it allows constant interrelation and communication between people, societies, companies and other actors in the modern world. One could safely say that without communication, life as we know it could not exist.  With the passage of time, the need to be more and more communicated became greater, and that is why companies and manufacturers related to the world of telephony are in a  constant search to evolve and offer better equipment and services.  first modern smartphone

Evolution of cell phones

Since 1854, the year that could be defined as the date of creation of the telecommunications market thanks to the invention of the  telephone , it has never stopped innovating. And although  the invention of the telephone was a historic event that had a great impact worldwide,  which made it possible to reduce great distances by giving people the possibility of being in communication with greater frequency and ease,  it was not until the arrival of cell phones. in 1972, brainchild of Martin Cooper, that the telephone became an artifact from which it is impossible to get rid of, altering, in addition to the way of communicating, the way in which the individual who uses it behaves socially. This is precisely what this article talks about.
Over the years,  cell phones have evolved  (and continue to do so) in a drastic way. They started out as  “bricks”  (so called because of their large size) and analog, to end up small and digital with countless incredible features.  first modern smartphone

Birth of the cell phone

The cell phone has its beginnings at the beginning of World War II, where remote communication was a real necessity , that is why Motorola created a device called  Handie Talkie H12-16 . It is an equipment that allowed communication through radio waves that at that time did not exceed 600 Khz. first modern smartphone

It was only a matter of time before the two technologies of Tesla and Marconi came together to create communication through radio-telephones:  Martín Cooper, considered the father of cellular telephony, manufactured the first radio telephone between 1970 and 1973,  in United States, and in 1979 the first systems appeared on the Tokyo market (Japan), manufactured by NTT. Europe could not be left behind and in 1981 a system similar to  AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) was introduced. first modern smartphone

Already in 1985 they began to perfect and mold the characteristics of this new system. In this way, in the 80s it was possible to create a team that used resources similar to those of Handie Talkie , aimed at people in the business sector who needed constant communication, it  is then that the mobile phone was created, marking a milestone in history of the wireless components,  since with this equipment it was possible to speak at any time and in any place. first modern smartphone

The first cell phone

The first cell phone in history was the  Motorola DynaTAC 8000X , first seen in 1983 . It weighed 780 grams and measured approximately 33 x 9 x 4.5cm. It was obviously analog, and it had a small display. The  battery  had a durability of no more than an hour talking or 8 hours in stand-by. The sound quality was very bad, it was heavy and unsightly,  but also, certain people paid its value of USD $ 3,995  , which made it a luxury object that only certain social groups could access. first modern smartphone

The first people to use them were businessmen, executives and personnel with high purchasing power , mainly because the socioeconomic development of a company needs effective communication, communication with suppliers, customers, employees, governments and regulatory bodies.  The use of this service had a high cost since there was a lack of competition, prices did not fall and there were no technical improvements. 
In 1984, around 900,000 phones were sold , considerably exceeding the estimated number. first modern smartphone

First generation of cell phones evolution of mobile phones

The first generation of cell phones emerged with the appearance on the world market of the well-known “brick”  (DynaTac 8000X) in the late 1980s. These  devices had analog  technology for restricted use of voice commands. The predominant technology of this generation was AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System)

Second generation of cell phones 

This emerged in the 90s, with cell phones with digital technology and with certain highly valued benefits, such  as extended battery life, and higher definition and sound quality. These phones  already had the ability to send and receive text messages (SMS)  although at that time it was not the “boom” of this tool. The end of the decade saw the rise of cell phones; ordinary people were added to the list of users, favored by the price and the competition between the different companies. first modern smartphone

The predominant technologies of this generation were:  GSM  (Global System by Mobile Communications); IS-136  (also known as TIA / EIA136 or ANSI-136) and  CDMA  (Code Division Multiple Access) and  PDC  (Personal Digital Communications), only used in Japan. first modern smartphone
In this generation, the previous technologies are joined with the new ones incorporated in cell phones.  A massification arises, and now they have a chip (SIM card), where all the information is found. first modern smartphone

Consumption expanded remarkably, and one of the causes is the existence in the market of “low-range” GSM phones, such as the Nokia 1100 , Sagem XT, Motorota C200 or C 115, Alcatel, Siemens A56 or Sony Ericsson T106, all with very low prices and with seductive promotions. However, the need to achieve a certain social status does not cease to be present,  and the cell phone does not cease to have a symbolic value of class membership,  both in young people and in senior executives who continue to benefit from its services.

Along with these “minor” equipment, there was an infinite variety of phone models with cameras, and some that even allowed filming a few minutes , color screen, fast Internet connection (EDGE technology), sending multimedia messages (MMS) and access to e-mail box (POP3). first modern smartphone

In 2001, 3G technology for cell phones, based on UMTS (General Mobile Telecommunications Services), was launched in Japan . At this time they took one of the last steps in what is mobile telephony. The main novelty was the incorporation of a second camera to be able to make video calls, that is, to speak and see a person at the same time through the mobile phone. first modern smartphone

After that, other communication standards followed, increasingly faster and more capable and that finally could go hand in hand with the performance and possibilities of a wonderful device: The smartphone,  the smartphone that changed the way people they carry out their daily life.  first modern smartphone

Smartphones and 4G evolution of mobile phones

There is no doubt that the appearance on the market of the 4G communications standard forever changed the way cell phone users use their device. To such an extent this is so that entertainment consumer telephony as we know it today could not exist.

The union of the smartphone, an impressive mix between telephone and computer, and this new communication standard, undoubtedly broke the content consumption scheme to which we were accustomed for years,  since thanks to the data transmission speed that can reaching 4G  we can consume without any kind of problems high definition video content, streaming music and a thousand other things, in  addition to that of course everything that has to do with our work we can do it several times faster and without so many complications, in the place and time where we find ourselves,  points that today are vital for the daily development of millions of people around the world. first modern smartphone

With the arrival of 4G to the cell phone, its users have strengthened more ties than ever with technology,  placing in this pair the responsibility of carrying out safely and effectively many of the tasks that before they were not even encouraged to leave in hands. from other people, moral and psychological considerations aside. first modern smartphone

Thanks to the long road traveled and the constant evolution of the actors involved in cellular technology , we are currently facing a very wide and varied market,  with many opportunities, equipment and plans that adjust to each of the user’s needs,  something that it is mainly reflected in the increasingly specific advertising campaigns on the  one hand, and on the other, in the constant offer of promotions and plans, trying to attract new customers.

Smartphones and 5G evolution of mobile phones first modern smartphone

With the appearance and massification of 4G connectivity technology at the beginning of the 2010s, the communications landscape changed forever, since as we saw earlier in this post, the advantages in relation to previous technologies were incredible, since the quality of the link was stable, fluid and fast, all facts that made 4G / LTE spread to all the corners where it was technically possible. first modern smartphone

However, the public, who at that time marveled at the 4G capacity , still had a lot to see, since after a relatively short time another communication technology would appear on the scene, even much faster, and with which we can carry out perform tasks with our phones and mobile devices that we previously thought were not possible.

This is because 5G technology is capable of offering faster and more fluid connections, with the possibility of being able to connect to more connection points simultaneously. All these advantages are really very useful in order to be in tune with new technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT) , where all the devices that make it up are connected through wireless networks to the Internet, including televisions, refrigerators, devices like Alexa or even our own vehicle. first modern smartphone

All this requires a great capacity of reaction of the communication lines, since the amount of data that must be processed is really large, and what is less needed is for them to become saturated or collapse, problems that the infrastructure associated with the technology 5G will avoid. first mobile phone 1973 first modern smartphone

history of mobile phones
history of mobile phones

Once 5G technology has been implemented in all strata of society, users will be able to surf the Internet at speeds of up to 20 Gbps, with the benefits of being able to enjoy high definition content without jumps or fluctuations. In addition, other processes that are a little more transparent for the user will benefit, such as the data processing of organizations and companies, which also translate into better services for the user.

In all this, the so-called latency also has a lot to do with it, that is, the delay between sending and receiving a data packet. In 5G technology , this latency factor is extremely low compared to 4G. This fact allows us to have a faster reaction of all the devices connected to a 5G network. first mobile phone 1973

But is the difference between 4G and 5G technologies really important ? The truth is that if. In hard data, the most important differences between 4G and 5G are speed and latency, as we mentioned. In 4G, the highest speed we can reach, always speaking in theoretical terms, is 100 Mbps, while 5G allows us to reach up to 20 Gbps, an important difference. first modern smartphone

The aforementioned latency, in precise numbers, indicates reaction times for 4G technology of 200 ms, while for 5G this value is reduced to 1 ms. Added latency to the speed at which 5G can reach and the greater number of simultaneous connections, which would allow us to connect up to 1 million devices per km2, will offer us the possibility of practically immediate access to all types of hosted services in the cloud, for example. first modern smartphone

Another advantage that 5G technology offers us is lower energy consumption, approximately 90% according to experts, both for emission and reception. In the case of the user, this lower energy consumption will allow us to save a good amount of battery, increasing the autonomy of our phone and reducing charging cycles. first modern smartphone

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