Computer hardware. Internal and external components


Computer hardware refers to the physical parts of a computer and related devices. Internal hardware devices include motherboards, hard drives, and RAM. External hardware devices include monitors, keyboards, mice, printers, and scanners.

computer hardware components

The internal parts of a computer’s hardware are often called components, while the external hardware devices are often called peripherals. Together they all fall into the category of computer hardware.

Internal hardware components

Internal hardware is that device that is installed inside the computer. The main internal hardware components are as follows:

  1. Base Plate: Contains all the connections that allow the other decayed subsystems to interact.
  2. Central Processing Unit (CPU): The components that perform all the calculations and mathematical manipulations in a computer.
  3. Read Only Memory (ROM): The memory used by computers to store data and instructions needed by the CPU for computer operation.
  4. Random Access Memory (RAM): The most common computer memory.
  5. Hard Drive – The primary method of storage on all desktop computer systems.
  6. Battery – The battery allows your computer to function. Without a battery it couldn’t turn on.
  7. Processor: the brain of the computer system.
  8. Fan: Fan is a device that helps your computer to cool down much more easily by blowing air into your laptop.
  9. Modem: connect hardware and signal.
  10. USB port: The USB port allows you to connect another device that has a USB output and connect it to your computer.
  11. Ethernet port: A system that connects multiple computer systems to form a local area network.
  12. Serial Port-A connector by which a device that sends data one bit at a time can be connected to a computer.
  13. Video Card – These are also known as graphics cards, which are responsible for displaying 2D and 3D images on your monitor.
  14. Sound card: is an electronic circuit board that is mounted inside the computer to control sound output to speakers or headphones.

External hardware components

External hardware refers to any device that is outside of the computer. The main external hardware components are as follows:

  1. Microphone: Listen and capture or amplify sound.
  2. Webcam: Allows the user to capture videos or screenshots of themselves.
  3. Monitor – Displays information to the user on a desktop computer.
  4. Screen – Displays information to the user on a laptop screen.
  5. Keyboard: allows the user to type information.
  6. Computer: An electronic device for storing and processing data.
  7. Speakers or loudspeakers sounds on the computer.
  8. Mouse: Allows the user to move the cursor on the computer.
  9. Power Supply: The charger for the laptop that allows the user to charge their computer. This puts more battery into the computer so it can last longer.
  10. Computer case: It is the external part of the computer that houses all the internal components of the PC.
  11. Compact Discs: CDs are the most common type of removable media. There are two types of devices on a computer that use CDs: a CD-ROM drive and a CD burner.
  12. Digital Versatile Discs: DVDs are another popular optical disc storage media format. The main uses of DVDs are video and data storage.
  13. Blu-ray: This is a newer optical disc storage format. Its main uses are high definition video and data storage.
  14. USB Flash Drive – This is a small, portable flash memory card that plugs into a computer’s USB port and functions like a portable hard drive.

What is the difference between internal and external hardware?

Internal hardware is every piece of electronics that is connected to your motherboard. External hardware is anything that is outside of the computer case. From USB sticks to nuclear reactors. If it is outside the box, it is considered external.

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