Computer Processor. Full Explaination

In this article we are going to talk about the processors used in computers,  but it is good to clarify that they are also present in other electronic devices, even in your cell phone , and in many of the electronic devices used today. CPU Brands types of cpu internal parts of cpu

The processor is the brain of the system, in charge of processing all the information . Basically, it  is the “brain” of the computer . Practically, everything goes through it, since it  is responsible for executing all the existing instructions . The faster the processor runs, the faster the instructions will be executed. types of cpu

It is the component where the latest technology is used. The largest producers of processors in the world are large companies with technology to manufacture competitive processors for computers:  Intel (which dominates the market), AMD, Via and IBM, which manufactures processors for other companies, such as Transmeta. types of cpu

Some of the most modern models, and which have the most advanced technology today are the  Intel Core Sandy Bridge in its i3, i5 and i7 variants , the AMD Fusion and FX, which can incorporate up to 8 cores.

The aforementioned cover most of the needs in desktop computers,  while for portable devices such as cell phones and tablets we can have ARM, Atom, Tegra2 and Snapdragon processors . types of cpu

The processor is the most complex and often the most expensive component , but it cannot do anything alone. Like every brain, it needs a body, which is made up of the other components of the computer, including memory, hard disk, video and network card, monitor, keyboard, and mouse. types of cpu internal parts of cpu

What are coolers for? CPU Brands

Generally , processors, due to their structure and speed, heat up , and to avoid this overheating, coolers are used. internal parts of cpu

In today’s computers , the processors are cooled through a heat sink , made of aluminum or copper, with a small fan over it and an air duct that extracts hot air from the cabinet. types of cpu internal parts of cpu

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Processor nomenclature CPU Brands

The two largest firms, processor manufacturers, are Intel and AMD.  Each of these companies adopts a certain nomenclature to provide information to the consumer based on the name of the processor. Apparently the nomenclature of these processors is somewhat confusing , but with a little attention we can identify many of their characteristics.  types of cpu internal parts of cpu

Let’s start with the Intel tracks CPU Brands

In the case of the prestigious company Intel, every Quad Core processor (which has 4 cores) begins with the letter Q, for Quad . For example: Q9550, Q8400s, Q9300.

All Processor Dual Core (which has 2 cores) begins with the letter Y . For example: Y7500, Y6750, Y4700.

The nomenclature of the  powerful Core iX processors  is hierarchically divided as follows

Core i7:  High-performance (and high-cost) processors

Core i5:  Intermediate performance processors

Core i3:  Entry-level performance processors 

If the processor was an Atom it means that it was made for netbooks.

If it’s a  Xeon , it means it was made for servers.

If the processor that you are going to buy in a Celeron, means that this is a low-performance and low-cost processor , we would be talking about a version that lacks a good processor. These Celerons are usually part of the cheapest computers. types of cpu internal parts of cpu

AMD nomenclature

Every processor that ends with X2, X3 and X4 has 2.3 and 4 cores, respectively.  For example: Athlon 64 X2 4400. types of cpu internal parts of cpu

There will always be a numbering next to the name of an AMD processor.  This numbering does not mean the frequency (or speed) of the processor, it only indicates the model. parts of cpu

The versions that have FX at the end of the name have the multiplier released , making them ideal for overclocking. types of cpu internal parts of cpu

A processor called Sempron, is an ultra basic processor.  With cache memory and single core (single core) no Sempron processor is Dual Core. types of cpu internal parts of cpu

With regard to Phenom processors, there are Phenom and Phenom II (II is the best) and they are high performance processors.  parts of cpu

The best processors from each manufacturer CPU Brands

When buying a processor, you should not only analyze the clock , since it is only a part of the equipment. Many sellers can confuse us when they offer us processors if we are not informed. They can offer us a 3.2 processor ensuring that it is better than a 2.6 processor, the 2.6 being a Dural Core and the 3.2 Celeron, the Dural Core being superior. internal parts of cpu

Always analyze the processor with the highest number (as long as they are of the same brand), in the case of Intel and the most recent AMD’s (Dual, Quad Core and iX; Phenom II and Athlon II). For instance:

P 8400, P8500, P8600 Which is the best? The one with the largest number.  parts of cpu

Phenom II X4 920 and Phenom II X4 955. Which is the best? The one with the greatest number. 

You just have to be careful when comparing processors from different brands. parts of cpu

The multi-core technology of processors CPU Brands

Not many years ago,  computers were differentiated by the speed of their CPU, the amount of memory installed, the capacity of their hard drive, and little else.  But this changed in such a way thanks to the cheaper construction methods and therefore their price to the final consumer,  that at present we can have processors with up to 8 cores,  being the most common to have a computer with a dual-core processor.

However, for most users, the number of cores on your computer is a datum that means nothing except the idea that it runs faster. But multicore processor technology goes much further, and is  also not only related to the field of personal computing but can also be found in other types of devices,  both portable and fixed.

That is why it is very important to know the different aspects that surround it, since in this way we will be able  to accurately plan the best cost-benefit ratio when buying a computer, tablet or a phone ,  since in these fields it is also the multicore technology is present. internal parts of cpu

Multi-core CPU technology  can be extremely useful when we perform tasks that require a lot of the computer, such  as  virtual machines like VirtualBox or editing video, audio or tasks that require heavy processing power. internal parts of cpu

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What is a nucleus? CPU Brands

When we talk about  “core”  or  “Cores”  of a CPU, we are talking about each of the processors that are packaged in the capsule, ie in the chip. That is why  when we see a CPU with two or four cores, we only see a single chip, but actually inside it houses two or more processors that perform their task separately.

This technology is possible thanks to the fact that in recent years constant development and research in the field of miniaturization  achieved an incredible density of electronic components in a very small space.

Basically, multi-core CPUs  allow the computer to perform several processes at the same time in the different processors that the chip has,  that is, if we are listening to music and browsing the web at the same time, two processors will be used, one for the music player and another for the browser. parts of cpu

In the event that we were performing the same tasks but in a single-core computer, the processor’s work should be divided,  so the response to both processes that are running would be much, but much slower ,  since the processor you must take care of both tasks. internal parts of cpu

However,  the benefits of using a multi-core processor are not only measured by the number of applications that we have open and running,  since the extra processors can help us with all the tasks and processes taking place in the background in the system. internal parts of cpu

Relationship between CPU speed and number of cores CPU Brands

Processors  are usually measured by the clock speed at which they work,  which is a good parameter for the end user when it comes to knowing their “power”, that is, the speed with which they work. However, this is much more complex, but it is the reason for another article.

Unfortunately, an 8-core processor with a speed of 5 Ghz, that is, 8 processors inside the chip, will  never work by multiplying the number of processors by the clock speed.  This means that the example mentioned above will  never work at 40 Ghz, a  speed that we will have to wait many years to see.

Each processor inside the chip will run at 5Ghz, which means that the number of cores or cores does not double the speed. In addition,  we must bear in mind that many of the programs that we usually use are of the single-threaded type,  which means that the task that it performs cannot be divided between two or more processors.  These types of programs must be executed on a single processor,  which means that the for this type of programs with a multicore configuration will not improve.

Simply put, these apps will run at 5Ghz, which is quite a lot, but never at 40Ghz. Such is the case of Microsoft Office, which does not benefit directly from the multicore architecture, so  its performance will be similar regardless of the number of cores that the CPU contains.  It should be noted that in this type of case, the remaining processors will remain idle, waiting for other orders to be executed.

Although multi-core implementations allow the user to do their tasks effectively and quickly,  the truth is that developing apps that take advantage of this technology is a very complex task,  which benefits multi-core systems and  displaces to the alternative of developing processors with fewer cores but running much faster.  In this sense, many specialists predict the end of the Ghz race and the beginning of the Multicore era.

Regarding the apps that make good use of multicore technology,  Google Chrome is one of the applications, along with Ashampoo Snap 6, World of Tanks, VSO Player  and others that make good use of it, spreading the process load between the different processors that make up the CPU.

Definitions of number of cores CPU Brands

Below these lines we can find a box with the meaning of the  definitions with which the different types of CPU are known in the market  and the amount of cores or cores they contain.

TYPE OF PROCESSOR NUMBER OF CORES
Dual Core Two cores
Quad Core Four cores
Hexa Core Six cores
Octo Core Eight cores
Deca Core Ten cores

Hyper-Threading

Some of the developments of the Intel company incorporate the so-called  “Hyper-threading” technology,  which allows to  simulate that each physical core of a CPU is two logical cores.  However, the use of this system, and although it improves in a wide range the response capacity and performance of a processor equipped with  “Hyper-Threading”,  the truth is that it can never be compared in any of these terms with a CPU with real physical cores.

Differences between 32 and 64 bits.

One of the questions that are often asked by those who have to change a computer  or make installations or updates to its operating system or user software , is about the type of architecture with which its equipment runs internally. We have surely heard about  whether a processor or version of the operating system is 32 or 64 bits , but sadly these numbers mean nothing to us.

This is precisely the objective pursued by this article, to offer information about this topic  so that we can all know exactly what these figures correspond to and what their practical applications are on a day-to-day basis,  since a wrong implementation of any of these platforms in certain tasks it can result in a loss of money or even in a very important loss of productivity.

It should be noted that the terminology  “32 or 64-bit PC”  refers  both to the architecture of the processor and the operating system used to move it, that is, both things go hand in hand, at least in most cases. Having made this clarification, we begin fully with the article. CPU Brands

Main differences between 32 and 64 bits

Basically,  the main difference between a 32-bit and a 64-bit processor  is that the former can process sequence of bits of up to 32 bits, while 64-bit processors can double this capacity. As we know,  the processor of a PC is in charge of carrying out all the logical and mathematical calculations  in order to obtain the results requested by the user, and for this they must handle information packets at a certain speed. At this point, the main difference between both platforms is that in the case of 64-bit processors,  they can work with twice the information in the same clock cycle as a 32-bit one, allowing them to access greater memory capacity and process much larger blocks of data, increasing performance and overall processing speed.

Another difference, and why many professional systems prefer a 64-bit architecture,  is that this type of processors can theoretically address up to 16 exabytes of memory,  while 32-bit processors can only address 4 Gb, which in systems of little performance as a writing PC is more than enough.

Regarding the operating systems, specifically Windows,  the most important difference between the 32-bit and 64-bit versions  is that the former supports up to 4 Gb. Of RAM, of which only 3.25 Gb will be used. 64 bits these support up to 192 Gb. Of RAM. CPU Brands

Processors history

According to Gordon Moore, co-founder of Intel and author of the law that bears his name, the new  processors Intel Nehalem represent the biggest advancement in technology applied to transistors since the early 60. These processors,  with a smaller size to that of the nail of a finger, are the result of a technological advance that began a few years ago with larger computers with less capacity. 

With the introduction of completely new materials, such as Hafnium-based circuits, a reduction of up to 30% in power loss was achieved compared to previous generation processors.

The first electronic computer was the ABC (Atanasoft Berry Computer), built in 1937 by Dr. Vincent Atanasoft and Clifford Berry. It weighed 320 kg and took up the space of a table. Its main function was to solve algebra problems with greater accuracy. In the early days of the computer age, computers were indeed large machines capable of only performing a few mathematical calculations.

In 1946 ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was publicly presented, created by John Presper Eckert and John William Mauchly.  It was a 167m2 colossus and weighed 27 tons, whose operation could raise the ambient temperature to 50 degrees C.  Unlike its contemporaries, the ENIAC completely dispensed with analogue processes.

During the 1950s and 1960s another great advance was generated:  computers stopped working on the basis of valves and began to use transistor circuits. 

The history of Intel processors

Invented in 1947 by William Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Brattain, transistors are small electrical transmission switches.  The development of integrated circuits allowed, in 1971,  the appearance of the first microprocessor, Intel’s 4004, which contained 2,000 transistors.

In  1981 the Intel 8088 processor appeared.  It was 16 bits, worked with a maximum of 10MHz and contained 29,000 transistors.
A year later, the Intel 286 processor,  which had 39,000 transistors, was launched on the market. 

In 1985 Intel developed a processor that contained 287,000 transistors, that is, one hundred times more than the 4004 processor of fifteen years ago: it  was the Intel 386, which with its 32 bits was the first that allowed the execution of multiple tasks. 

The  Intel Pentium Processor  was released in 1991. It occupied a surface area of ​​0.8 microns and contained 3 million transistors. Eight years later the number of transistors  became three times higher (9.5 million)  with the Intel Pentium III processor.

At the beginning of the new millennium,  Intel was developing 90nm processors that offered higher performance and lower power consumption. They were the first processors made with Silicon.

In 2005, the first multi-core processor on the market was born: the Intel Pentium D. It was the beginning of Dual-Core technology in microprocessors, which a year later led to the development of the Intel Core 2 Duo processor. Its 65 nm manufacturing process allowed up to 290 million transistors to be available. 

Advances in multi-core technology continued their course and  Intel Core 2 Quad core processors made their appearance in 2007.  In this way, Intel’s leadership again translated into higher user performance, which can now be achieved. make the most of the multimedia experience.

Finally, the era of 45 nm arrived in 2008, known under the name of Nehalem. The smallest processors in the world, which use Hafnium as a component, were implemented in the development of the Intel Core 2 Duo, Intel Core 2 Quad, Intel Xeon and also in the latest line of processors, Intel Atom, which represents the greatest innovation. within electronics in the last 40 years.

Innovations in computing architecture allowed a power far greater than that of that enormous ENIAC colossus to appear on a microchip smaller than the tip of a finger. Thus, Intel 45nm Processors are the new era in technological advancement in which Intel continues to make history. 

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