The term acid can be defined as those substances that allow the incorporation of a pair of electrons, thus allowing the formation of a coordinated covalent bond . Acids can be divided into two, strong and weak, according to their ion dissolving capacity .
This component is responsible for lowering the pH of various solutions and in the case of strong acids, they are generally corrosive, being able to dissolve better in slightly alkalized or acidified media.
- Strong acids: these are compounds that have a tendency to dissociate, generally leaving nothing of the protonated acid in the solution. They are conductive and corrosive acids.
- Weak acids: this type of acid makes it possible to create a balance between the dissociated and the undissociated form since, thanks to being a weak acid, its dissociation is partial.
- Its presentation can be liquid, gaseous and in some cases, solid.
- It has flavor according to the aspect it has as well as the type of presentation in which it is found.
- There are organic and inorganic acids .
Examples of acids
- Citric acid , such as lemon or orange
- Phosphoric acid (H3PO4): also known as orthophosphoric acid. It is used mostly in the chemical industry.
- Carbonic acid (H2CO3): also known as dihydrogen, trioxocarbonate. It is a weak oxacid acid from carbon dioxide.
- Nitric acid (HNO3): strong and highly oxidizing acid. It is used for the manufacture of nitrogen explosives and fertilizers.
- Sulfuric acid (H2SO4): strong acid that is applied in the industrial area and in the synthesis processes.
- Perchloric acid (HCIO4): strong and highly oxidizing acid
- Chlorous acid (HCL3): it is a chemical component of weak and inorganic character that presents instability.
- Bromic acid (HBrO3): it is a powerful oxidant, derived from bromine oxacid, which is used mainly in the composition of fireworks.
- Hydroiodic Acid (HI): It is known as an interconvertible strong acid.
- Butyric acid: it is the final result derived from the fermentation process of certain carbohydrates.
- Periodic Acid (HIO4): This is an oxacid of iodine. It is known to be a powerful oxidant.
- Boric acid (H3BO3): slightly toxic chemical component. Used to attack the foot of athletes and various household insects.
- Ascorbic acid (C 6 H 8 O 6 ): Chemical substance that works as an antioxidant
- Hydrochloric acid (HCl): is the acid responsible for degrading the food that the body processes in the human body.
- Tartaric acid (C 4 H 6 O 6 ): it is an acid that is used in the food area, such as effervescent in beverages, in bakery and in the pharmaceutical area.
- Acetic acid: it is the main component of vinegar. It is mostly used as a food preservative in the home.
- Benzoic acid: it is a preservative that is used in various edible products and in some cases it is seen in the form of salt.
- Retinoic acid: used as a formula for aging skin as well as for acne.
- Lactic acid: it is the one that is generated in the body as a result of the degradation of glucose after having carried out intense physical activity.
- Ribonucleic acid: it is known to be the central component of ribosomes. It is an essential chemical component for the completion of protein synthesis.