Examples of Acids

We explain the examples of acids in chemistry. The acids are all chemical compounds which produce a pH less than 7 . They are characterized by releasing hydrogen ions (H + ) when they are dissolved in water, that is, in aqueous solution. Depending on the acid, it will be the concentration of these H + ions that is reached in that medium, and therefore the pH value that is detected. Its chemical behavior is described in three theories called Acid-Base Theories , which are: examples of acids in chemistry

  • Arrhenius theory
  • Brönsted-Lowry theory
  • Lewis theory

Arrhenius theory examples of acids in chemistry

According to Arrhenius, acids are all chemical species capable of releasing a hydrogen ion (H + ) when dissolved in water, and thus increase the concentration of these ions, accompanying those of water (H 2 O), separated into hydrogen H + and hydroxyl OH  . The pH of the solution can be measured with litmus paper, the color of which after dipping will indicate the value.

Brönsted-Lowry theory examples of acids in chemistry

According to Brönsted and Lowry, acids are substances capable of delivering protons in a chemical reaction. A proton is practically the same as a hydrogen ion H + . This theory is also called the proton exchange theory . Although it may seem identical to the Arrhenius Theory, it is distinguished by the fact that it also encompasses NH 3 ammonia , for example.

Ammonia does not have a hydracid, oxyacid, or organic acid chemical structure. Chemically it is amphoteric , that is, it behaves as an acid and as a base. It can give up protons to form the amines, or receive them to form the ammonium ion NH + , which subsequently binds to the hydroxyl of water (OH  ) and forms the ammonium hydroxide NH 4 OH.

Lewis theory examples of acids in chemistry

According to Lewis, any substance capable of receiving electrons during a chemical reaction is called acid . In other words, it is the substance that is reduced , and that by its action oxidizes others . Your participation will be responsible for reducing the pH to values ​​below 7. It does not necessarily have to have a hydracid, oxyacid or organic acid molecule. examples of acids in chemistry

sources of different acidsTypes of acids examples of acids in chemistry

Acids are classified according to their nature into inorganic and organic, but it is within these broad categories that the three types are located, remaining as follows:

  • Inorganic acids: hydracids, oxyacids.
  • Organic acids: carboxylic acids.

Hydracids

Hydracids are ionic compounds formed by hydrogen (H + ) and an anion that can belong to the oxygen family or to halogens. They are the most reactive and attack metals to form their binary salts, releasing hydrogen gas H 2 into the environment. This phenomenon is a type of corrosion , which degrades metals and renders them useless for mechanical purposes.

Some examples of hydracids are:

  • Hydrofluoric acid HF
  • Hydrochloric acid HCl
  • Hydrobromic acid HBr
  • Hydrogen sulfide H 2 S
  • Selenhydric acid H 2 Se
  • Hydrocyanic acid HCN

Oxyacids

Oxyacids are ionic compounds formed by hydrogen (H + ) and an anion formed by a non-metal and oxygen, also called a radical . They are slightly less reactive than hydracids, and when they come into contact with metals, they aggressively attack them to form an oxysalt and release hydrogen gas H 2 into the environment. It is the same mechanism as with the previous ones.

Some examples of oxyacids are:

  • Nitric acid HNO 3
  • Perchloric acid HClO 4
  • Carbonic acid H 2 CO 3
  • Sulfuric acid H 2 SO 4
  • Boric acid H 3 BO 3
  • Phosphoric acid H 3 PO 4

Carboxylic acids

Carboxylic acids are organic compounds formed by a hydrocarbon chain (with C – C and C – H covalent bonds) and a carboxyl group (–COOH). They are much less reactive than other types of acid, and do not reduce the pH too much, leaving it at values ​​between 6 and 5. They dissociate in water with a considerably slower speed.

Some examples of carboxylic acids are:

  • Formic acid HCOOH
  • Acetic acid CH 3 COOH
  • Propionic acid CH 3 CH 2 COOH
  • Butyric acid CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 COOH
  • Pentanoic acid CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 COOH
  • Hexanoic acid CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 COOH

Characteristics of acids

All substances known as acid are distinguished by the following characteristics:

  • They chemically attack metals producing salts and hydrogen gas H 2 .
  • They dissociate in water, releasing hydrogen ions H + .
  • They generate a pH less than 7 in aqueous solution.
  • They chemically counteract the bases, producing a neutralization reaction between them. The products are water and a salt.
  • They can be in a gaseous or liquid state.

sources of different acidsMost important acids

  1. Nitric Acid HNO 3 : It is a liquid compound that is obtained from the mixture of nitrogen peroxide and water, thus obtaining a highly toxic and corrosive acid mixture.
  2. Hydrochloric or muriatic acid HCL : It is highly corrosive, it is used industrially and in addition the digestive system produces it for the degradation of food, it is a liquid solution of hydrogen chloride.
  3. Phosphoric Acid H 3 PO 3 : It is usually obtained from carbon dioxide, and they are involved in various metabolic functions.
  4. Citric Acid C 6 H 8 O 7 : It is an organic acid that intervenes in various metabolic functions and is abundant in various foods of plant origin (especially citrus fruits), from which the body can acquire it when eating.
  5. Sulfuric Acid H 2 SO 4 : It is highly corrosive, which is why it is widely used in industry and in tasks such as unclogging drains, as well as for the synthesis of other acids, and in the refining processes of various metals.
  6. Boric Acid H 3 BO 3 :  Boric acid arises after the reaction of sodium tetrabirate decahydrate with an inorganic acid (commonly with hydrochloric acid). It is often used as an insecticide, antiseptic and for food preservation.
  7. Acetyl Salicylic Acid C 8 H 6 O 4 : It is one of the acids that have clinical functions, acetyl salicylic acid is aspirin, it is used to treat pain, fever and for other medical uses.
  8. Acetic Acid C 2 H 4 O 2 :  It is the one that is formed when the fermentation of the sugars that formed alcohol is too much, the acetic acid is vinegar and has a sour taste.
  9. Lactic Acid C 3 H 6 O 3 : It is one of the organic acids produced by the body itself, for example after physical efforts after carbohydrate metabolization processes, and this acid is also found in substances such as milk ( hence the name).
  10. Benzoic Acid C 6 H 5 -COOH: It is used for the preservation of food, in perfumery, and in other industrial uses. It usually appears in the solid state in the form of salts, since its dissolution in water is very slight (unless it is hot, and then its solubility increases).

examples of acids in chemistryMore than 40 examples of acids

Examples of hydracids

  1. Hydrofluoric acid HF
  2. Hydrochloric acid HCl
  3. Hydrobromic acid HBr
  4. Hydroiodic acid HI
  5. Hydrogen sulfide H 2 S
  6. Selenhydric acid H 2 Se
  7. Tellurhydric acid H 2 Te
  8. Hydrocyanic acid HCN

Examples of oxyacids examples of acids in chemistry

  1. Nitric acid HNO 3
  2. Hypochlorous acid HClO
  3. Chlorous acid HClO 2
  4. Chloric acid HClO 3
  5. Perchloric acid HClO 4
  6. Carbonic acid H 2 CO 3
  7. Sulfurous acid H 2 SO 3
  8. Sulfuric acid H 2 SO 4
  9. Boric acid H 3 BO 3
  10. Phosphorous acid H 3 PO 3
  11. Phosphoric acid H 3 PO 4
  12. Permanganic acid HMnO 4
  13. Hypobromous acid HBrO
  14. Bromous acid HBrO 2
  15. Bromic acid HBrO 3
  16. Perbromic acid HBrO 4
  17. Hypoiodine acid HIO
  18. Iodine acid HIO 2
  19. Iodic acid HIO 3
  20. Periodic acid HIO 4

Examples of organic acids

  1. Formic acid HCOOH
  2. Acetic acid CH 3 COOH
  3. Propionic acid CH 3 CH 2 COOH
  4. Butyric acid CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 COOH
  5. Pentanoic acid CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 COOH
  6. Hexanoic acid CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 COOH
  7. Heptanoic acid CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 COOH
  8. Octanoic acid CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 COOH
  9. Nonanoic acid CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 COOH
  10. Decanoic acid CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 COOH
  11. Undecanoic acid CH 3 (CH 2 ) 9 COOH
  12. Dodecanoic acid CH 3 (CH 2 ) 10 COOH
  13. Tridecanoic acid CH 3 (CH 2 ) 11 COOH
  14. Tetradecanoic acid CH 3 (CH 2 ) 12 COOH
  15. Pentadecanoic acid CH 3 (CH 2 ) 13 COOH
  16. Hexadecanoic acid CH 3 (CH 2 ) 14 COOH
  17. Heptadecanoic acid CH 3 (CH 2 ) 15 COOH
  18. Octadecanoic acid CH 3 (CH 2 ) 16 COOH
  19. Nonadecanoic acid CH 3 (CH 2 ) 17 COOH
  20. Eicosanoic acid CH 3 (CH 2 ) 18 COOH

 

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