Examples of applicability of sulfuric acid

What is sulfuric acid?

The sulfuric acid is a chemical compound that is considered highly corrosive whose preparation is achieved basically sulfur dioxide. Its use and handling is quite demanded at an industrial level due to its multiplicity of uses and the contribution of synthesizing other chemical materials.

The molecules that make up sulfuric acid are composed of sulfur, hydrogen and oxygen, all arranged in a pyramidal shape, leaving sulfur in the center and the oxygen molecule at the vertices. It is also known as tetraoxosulfuric acid, hydrogen tetraoxosulfate (IV), oil of vitriol, liquor of vitriol or spirit of vitriol.

Sulfuric acid names

This chemical component is also known as:

  • Sulfuric acid
  • Vitriol oil
  • Hydrogen sulfate
  • Battery acid
  • Sulfinic acid

Physical properties

    • H2SO4 is a colorless to slightly yellow viscous liquid with a pungent odor.
    • It has a density of 1.84 g / mL
    • Boiling point 337 ° C
    • Melting point of 10 ° C.

Sulfuric acid in its concentrated form is 98% in water, and it is the most stable form. Many other concentrations, under different names, are available for various purposes.

Chemical properties

    • It is a diprotic acid , since each acid unit produces two H ions in two independent stages: H22SO4 (aq) H (aq) + HSO4 (aq) HSO4 (aq) H (aq) + SO4 (aq)
    • Sulfuric Acid is a strong acid , that is, in aqueous solution it easily dissociates into hydrogen ions (H +) and sulfate ions (SO42-) and can crystallize various hydrates, especially glacial acid H22SO4 H2O (monohydrate).
    • Each molecule produces two H + ions , that is, sulfuric acid is dibasic. Their dilute solutions show all the characteristics of acids: they have a bitter taste, conduct electricity, neutralize alkalis, and corrode active metals, giving off hydrogen gas.
    • Salts containing the sulfate group SO4, and acid salts containing the hydrogen sulfate group, HSO4 , can be prepared from sulfuric acid .
    • The concentrated sulfuric acid , formerly called oil of vitriol, is a desiccant important. It works so vigorously in this respect that it draws out water, and therefore charres, wood, cotton, sugar, and paper. Due to these drying properties, it is used to make ether, nitroglycerin, and dyes.
    • When heated, concentrated sulfuric acid behaves as an oxidizing agent capable, for example, of dissolving such unreactive metals as copper, mercury, and lead, producing the metal’s sulfate, sulfur dioxide, and water.

Examples of applicability of sulfuric acid

  1. Decomposition of minerals (e.g. titanium (IV) -oxide or uranium digestion)
  2. as a catalyst
  3. due to its conductivity as an additive to water during electrolysis
  4. Sulfate production
  5. for semiconductor engraving
  6. for metal treatment
  7. as desiccant
  8. as a reaction aid (nitric acid)
  9. in car batteries
  10. Preparation of other acids (for example hydrofluoric acid or phosphoric acid)
  11. in analytics to determine the viscosity numbers of polyamide
  12. for the production of titanium dioxide
  13. Nitric acid fertilizer production
  14. Production of surfactants
  15. as a solvent during smoking

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