Types of carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are divided into two large groups according to the functional group that their closed chain carries: aldehyde or ketone. These groups are:
The aldoses are glucides with one closed chain (monosaccharides) of general formula Cn (H 2 O) n (where n is equal or greater than 3). In this group are the trioses , with 3 carbons and a triangular shape, the tetroses with 4 carbons and a square shape, the pentoses with 5 carbons and a pentagonal shape, and the hexoses with 6 carbons and a hexagonal shape. For example: a pentose is fructose and a hexose is glucose . The carbons can be found in the main chain or as branching substituents .
The ketoses are carbohydrates that have in their closed chain carbonyl group ( -C = O ) in the middle of the chain, from which protrudes the oxygen atom.
In addition, there is another great classification of carbohydrates according to the complexity of their molecules.
The monosaccharides are carbohydrates that have a single chain closed. They have an empirical formula of Cn (H 2 O) n. In this group are the trioses, tetrosas, pentosas and hexoses. The most representative monosaccharide is glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 , which is the fundamental fuel unit. It is generated by plants during photosynthesis to feed themselves. We also find fructose C 6 H 12 O 6 , which is a pentose found in fruits.
The disaccharides are carbohydrates that have two closed chains in the molecule. They are generally the combination of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic bond. Among the most important are: sucrose , a product of the union of two glucose molecules ; the lactose , binding of galactose and glucose ; and maltose, among others.
The polysaccharides are long chains consisting of three or more monosaccharides linked. Its molecular weights are very high and constitute an energy reserve that is stored in the body. Among them are starches and fibers or pectins .
The starches or starches are macromolecules formed by simple carbohydrates such as amylose and amylopectin in proportions of 75% to about 25%. They are found in foods of plant origin as part of foods such as corn, wheat, barley, oat flour, and in other plants and fruits such as bananas, potatoes, etc. These carbohydrates cannot be absorbed as they are, since the body cannot digest them directly. This is done by the enzyme amylase and some bacteria.
The fibers or pectins are the heterosacárido type, and part of the cell wall of plants. They are an important source of energy for several organisms, but they are not absorbable by the human organism, since the human digestive system does not have the necessary enzymes for their unfolding. However, they fulfill several important biological functions such as intestinal peristalsis , a set of movements that displace the food bolus and absorb the nutrients in it.what are examples of carbohydrates
Functions of carbohydrates
Carbohydrates have the main purpose of providing energy for the body to carry out its activities. This amount of energy is 4 calories for each gram (4 cal / g) of carbohydrates present in food, and the cells will metabolize them to create adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules , the energy units par excellence. These are distributed throughout the body through all the blood so that everything keeps working.
In addition to serving as “fuels” for the human body, carbohydrates have a structural role in cells , providing resistance to their membrane and nourishing their organelles to carry out their processes. In this way, healthy tissues and a functional body are developed. They are complemented with the other essential nutrients that are lipids, proteins, vitamins.
Also, if the carbohydrates that have been consumed are not used, they can be stored as a reserve for the body’s homeostasis . Homeostasis is the state of equilibrium that includes constant body temperature and an even flow of energy for the day’s activities. The pancreas is the organ that is responsible for assimilating carbohydrates and communicating them in adequate amounts to the body.
Through a substance called insulin , the pancreas regulates the levels of carbohydrates that end up in the blood and are subsequently supplied to the internal organs and cells. When the secretion of insulin is already insufficient to counteract large amounts of carbohydrates, it falls into a disease called Diabetes Mellitus , which can be of several types, but all coincide in an imbalance. Of course, all excess is bad.
Examples of carbohydrates
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Examples of foods that contain carbohydrates
- Sweet potatoes
- Brussels sprouts
- Milk fat
- Green peas
- Romaine lettuce
- Carrot what are examples of carbohydrates