Examples of chemical phenomena
- An exchange of energy during the reaction between the system (which contains all substances) and the environment that surrounds it; either it is given to it to have a start (endothermic reaction), or it is released naturally in the course of the process (exothermic reaction).
- The molecules or atoms that make up the main substance are rearranged or combined with another that participates in the phenomenon, creating different matter.
Chemical phenomena occur in nature as part of the balance maintained by the planet itself. There are some inevitable and catastrophic such as forest fires due to the action of intense solar rays, and others that happen constantly such as biogeochemical cycles , which are reaction mechanisms that repeat themselves and transform matter as part of the aforementioned balance. An example is the nitrogen cycle , which describes how this element is recycled.
Chemical phenomena are also used in the fields of industry and pharmaceuticals . There are plants and laboratories destined to produce certain chemical products , which can be commercialized and are useful for humanity to carry out tasks for its benefit. Among these products we can mention soaps, some foods and medicines that alleviate the discomforts that are suffered.
When they occur within living organisms, these processes are called biochemical phenomena , and they are responsible for the body being nourished and functioning properly. Biochemical phenomena occur in respiration, food, and metabolism, for example.
30 examples of chemical phenomena explained
- The combustion reaction of any type of organic matter, such as wood, paper, plastics. It responds to a spark or overheating by releasing a lot of heat and giving off gases such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO), and water vapor (H 2 O).
- Chemist Friedrich Wöhler pioneered organic chemistry when he superheated ammonium isocyanate NH 4 CNO, an inorganic compound, and its atoms rearranged to become urea (NH 2 ) 2 C = O, an organic compound.
- When a metal is brought into contact with an aqueous acid solution, it will separate into ions. In this way, the metal ions will form salts with the acid anion.
- The combination of oxygen (O) and sulfur (S) in the roasting of sulfides, to form sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ).
- The combination of oxygen (O) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) at very high temperatures, to form sulfur trioxide (SO 3 ) .
- The catalysis using vanadium pentoxide V 2 O 5 of the combination of water and sulfur trioxide to form sulfuric acid of high purity (98% is the maximum).
- When iron (Fe) is in contact with a degree of humidity and ambient oxygen, a layer of its oxide (FeO) forms, with a reddish-orange color. The metal is weakened by corrosion, which is its wear by this process.
- When copper (Cu) is in contact with a degree of humidity and ambient oxygen, a layer of its oxide (CuO) forms, with a greenish-blue color. The metal is weakened by corrosion, which is its wear by this process.
- The putrefaction of meats , in which proteins are degraded to amines such as putrescein or cadaverine.
- The metabolism of fats in the mitochondria of cells to produce Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules , which are those that provide energy for other processes.
- The fermentation of the grape extract, in which the carbohydrates are decomposed into molecules of ethyl alcohol (C 2 H 5 OH).
- The lactic fermentation of milk, in which the lactose is oxidized to lactic acid molecules, a process from which yogurt is obtained.
- The creation of the pigment chlorophyll within the green colored plants.
- The union of the pigment hemoglobin with the oxygen that comes from inhalation to transport it as oxygenated hemoglobin to all the cells of the body.
- During respiration, cells release carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) as waste. Hemoglobin takes this molecule and they deposit new oxygen (O) so that biological processes continue to be carried out.
- When the blood coagulates, the thrombocytes or platelets work by creating a matrix with calcium and more chemical elements that will leave the scar.
- The rotting of fruits converts fructose into ethyl alcohol molecules.
- The combination of some polymers creates strong sealant glues.
- The union of an oxygen atom with two hydrogen ones results in a water molecule (H 2 O). The process can be reversible under specific conditions.
- During the digestion of food, hydrochloric acid (HCl) attacks carbohydrates, lipids and proteins in these, so that the simplest molecules are assimilated.
- During photosynthesis , plants absorb carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the environment and combine it with sunlight, generating glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) and oxygen gas (O 2 ) to keep the ambient air in balance.
- The electrochemical cells containing an aqueous sulfuric acid solution H 2 SO 4 and metal electrodes. There are electrons circulating inside it, which will make it possible to use them to generate an electric current.
- When a fatty acid such as stearic CH 3 (CH 2 ) 16 COOH is reacted with sodium hydroxide NaOH or potassium KOH, soap is obtained. This process is called saponification .
- When vegetable oil, which has unsaturated fatty acids, is heated sufficiently and food is added, it begins to take hydrogen from them and thus its bonds become saturated.
- Petroleum derivatives are used to make polymers such as polyethylene and polypropylene.
- The ionization of sodium chloride when it combines with water. The mixture is an electrolyte.
- The action of the enzyme amylase breaks down starch molecules to convert it to simple sugars and thus be able to digest it better.
- The oxidation of ethyl alcohol to acetic acid through fermentation.
- The combustion of methane (CH 4 ), to take advantage of its heat in cooking food.
- Platinum metal (Pt) works as a catalyst for the hydrogenation of organic substances.