The cloning is a rigorous laboratory procedure producing organisms (cells, molecules, etc.) almost identical to existing already.
The product of cloning is called a clone . It is an organism that copies the genetic information of another being physically very similar. almost exact from another at the genetic level.
How does it work?
When an organism is cloned, the first thing scientists do is obtain similar cells , that is, they first clone these elements and then develop the DNA chain of the cloning organism.
What differentiates a clone from a cloned organism is that, as the procedure is not sexual, certain elements of nature that give unique characteristics to each organism are not included.
Over the years there have been heated debates about the approval of these practices. UNESCO banned cloning as contrary to human dignity, but many scientists defend its use to improve human life.
However, some types of cloning are currently being carried out, such as molecular, which has a scientific purpose.
- Cell cloning. The cells are cloned to do different procedures with them.
- Molecular cloning. It serves for experiments of different purposes.
- Natural cloning. It is a non-sexual method given by only one parent. It is possible to produce it in plants and unicellular species.
- Therapeutic clonation. Its purpose is to produce tissues and organs to improve the health of species.
- Reproductive cloning. Its execution is prohibited anywhere in the planet. It is about the reproduction of a human or animal being completely.
- Species cloning. Its objective is to reproduce species of extinct animals. It has been practiced several times, but individuals die shortly after birth.
Uses of cloning
Although it has been forbidden to clone human beings since 1997, this practice is carried out in different ways in various countries. Proponents of cloning claim that such a procedure can help:
- Improve the fertility of the different animal species.
- To study diseases and thus obtain possible cures.
- Improve the effectiveness of medications.
- Perform organ transplants.
- Frogs in 1952, by Robert W. Briggs and Thomas J. King.
- Frogs, in 1970, by John B. Gurdon.
- Lambs, in 1984, by Steen Willadsen.
- Calves, in 1984, by M. Sims and NL First.
- The Sheep, Megan and Morag, in 1995.
- The sheep, Dolly, in 1995, by Ian Wilmut et al.
- The cow, Gene, in 1997, by Infigen, Inc.
- The sheep, Polly, in 1997, by Ian Wilmut et al.
- The mouse, Cumulina, in 1997, by the Hawaii School of Medicine.
- The fighting bull, Got, in 2010, by the Valencian Veterinary Research Foundation.