When there is a reciprocal adaptation, where the species influence each other in their lives, we are talking about coevolution, species that evolve in close relationship with others can encourage or affect the evolution of the other.
Conditions for coevolution to exist
- The character of the other species and selection
- There must be a joint evolution in both species
- Simultaneity, indicating that both species evolved at the same time
All species can participate in coevolutionary processes, in an interaction where one species is the prey of the other will be called antagonistic interaction , the species will evolve to adapt and create defense mechanisms against the predator . In the coevolution where there is a cooperative interaction of the species, both obtain a benefit.
Types of coevolution
- Gene by gene , between the two species genes are selected, the predominant gene is the one that survives
- Guild , where species act as a group against another group of species
- Specific , the species adapts its own trait to that of the other species
- Diversifying , various species interact as related groups
- By escape , the species is modified to survive against a predator
Examples of Coevolution
- The adaptation of the flowers to attract insects and birds to achieve pollination , the striking colors displayed by some species of plants in their flowering season make the continuity of their species possible, some have achieved colors that can be seen by birds such as the hummingbird. .
- The Carrasco Pine has evolved in defense of its most important predator such as the squirrel, which is a small animal that selects cones from these smaller trees, in response, the Aleppo Pine now produces much larger pineapples and seeds.
- Parasitism is when the parasite depends on another species to live, the ticks that cling to an animal or climbing plants in a tree are an example of this, in this case it is an antagonistic coevolution.
- The change in color of some species in their environment to hide from a predator is also considered coevolution, in the case of a chameleon on a tree branch adopting its color or an octopus that takes the reddish color of a coral. to go unnoticed.
- Cuckoos or cuckoo birds, leave their eggs in other nests, where they are cared for, it becomes a parasitic relationship, the eggs mimic the species of the nest and in which it even destroys the original eggs.
- The remora, is a fish that accompanies large species such as whales and sharks, they make a mutualistic coevolution, the remora adheres to the shark taking advantage of food remains and protection that it offers, while deworming the skin of the shark or the accompanying whale.
- Some turtles are able to lay their eggs in crocodile nests to be cared for by the crocodile.
- It is also a habit of some bees to deposit their young in wasp nests.