We explain that what are examples of covalent bonds? In chemistry, covalent bonds are those in which two atoms join together by sharing their valence electrons . They are generally produced in molecules that contain non-metals , since they have more electrons available in their last shell. Covalent bonds usually occur between atoms of the same element , but also between different non-metals. For this reason, its molecules tend to be stable and neutral. examples of covalent bonds
Covalent bonds are usually stronger than ionic bonds, because ionic bonds can be broken in hydrolysis (breakdown by the action of water to form aqueous solutions) and are only produced by electrostatic charges generated by valence electrons. In covalents , there is an attractive force sustained by the electrons shared between the two participating atoms.
Covalent bonds in organic chemistry
Covalent bonds predominate in organic chemistry , in which the element carbon is capable of forming a great variety of chains of its same atoms with this type of bond. The +4 valence of carbon will be covered by carbon-carbon C – C bonds, and completed by hydrogen atoms in C – H bonds. Due to the hybridization of the s p orbital of carbon, it is possible that double and triple covalent bonds are formed .
The single bonds are called sigma σ bonds , and they are accompanied by pi π bonds so that double and triple bonds are formed. The three types of covalent bonds are in substances that are in the three states of matter , and determine the physical and chemical properties of these. The boiling point decreases if there are double or triple bonds in chains with the same carbon number. Example: Propene CH 2 = CH – CH 3 boils before propane CH 3 –CH 2 –CH 3 .
Electronegativity examples of covalent bonds
One of the chemical properties involved in the formation of a covalent bond is electronegativity . It is the ability that an atom has to attract others to join , given the number of electrons that the first has in the last shell. Nonmetals have more, from 4 to 7, so they are more likely to receive electrons from metals to complete their octet rule (eight electrons in the valence shell).
The most electronegative element is fluorine (F) ; this property has a value of 4.0 in it, being the maximum in the entire periodic table. The element with the lowest electronegativity is cesium (Cs) , with a value of 0.7 . Due to these notable differences, forces arise that lean towards one end of the molecule, which makes it more reactive or soluble in certain solvents. There are therefore two types of covalent bonds: polar and nonpolar .
Covalent bond types
Covalent bonds are classified according to the difference in electronegativities between the elements that form them, in the following types: examples of covalent bonds
- Polar covalent bonds
- Nonpolar covalent bonds
Polar covalent bonds
Polar covalent bonds are characterized because the electronegativities of the elements that form them are different , so that the forces are unequal at that point in the molecule. Therefore two poles are formed in the compound. One that is attracting electrons from the bond, and another affected by said attraction. Substances that have polar covalent bonds are generally soluble in water and other solvents.
Nonpolar covalent bonds
Nonpolar or a polar covalent bonds are those in which the electronegativities of the atoms that form it are equal , which produces a uniformity in the attractions throughout the entire extension of the molecule. When a molecule is nonpolar, it is insoluble in water and other solvents. It is unable to separate at some point because it is stable. These forces can be altered when a double or triple bond is found . The molecule will weaken thus forming two ends. examples of covalent bonds
The hydrocarbons are polar compounds par excellence. These are chains that are formed by carbon-carbon C – C bonds, and in which the valence of carbon is completed by hydrogen atoms in C – H bonds. All the attractive forces are distributed evenly throughout the chain, without variation. Other nonpolar substances are gases such as nitrogen N 2 , oxygen O 2 , chlorine Cl 2 and fluorine F 2 , which occur as diatomic molecules. examples of covalent bonds
30 examples of molecules with covalent bonds
- Methane CH 4
- Ethane CH 3 –CH 3
- Propane CH 3 –CH 2 –CH 3
- Butane CH 3 –CH 2 –CH 2 –CH 3
- Nitrogen N≡N
- Phosphorus P≡P
- Oxygen O = O
- Hydrogen H – H
- Fluorine F – F
- Chlorine Cl – Cl
- Bromine Br – Br
- Iodine I – I
- Ammonia NH 3
- Methyl alcohol CH 3 –OH
- Ethyl alcohol CH 3 –CH 2 –OH
- Carbon dioxide O = C = O
- Water H – O – H
- Silica or silicon dioxide O = Si = O
- Phosphorous pentachloride PCl 5
- Phosphorous trichloride PCl 3
- Dichlorodifluoromethane CCl 2 F 2
- Diesel C 12 H 23
- Glucose C 6 H 12 O 6
- Methylamine CH 3 -NH 2
- Ethylamine CH 3 –CH 2 –NH 2
- Propylamine CH 3 –CH 2 –CH 2 –NH 2
- Butylamine CH 3 –CH 2 –CH 2 –CH 2 –NH 2
- Formic acid H – COOH
- Acetic acid CH 3 –COOH
- Propionic acid CH 3 –CH 2 –COOH
examples of covalent bonds