Examples of dispersed systems

Have you ever heard that there are scattered people? When someone is “scattered”, do you imagine him as a person who mixes his emotions between being distracted, indifferent and at the same time annoyed by something? Well, something similar happens with certain elements of nature in a state of aggregation such as liquids , solids or gases .

In chemistry, there are so  called disperse systems. In this case , it refers to the mixture of two or more substances (simple or compound) that are divided trying to join.

This attempt of substances to mix is ​​messy because the intention is to merge or not. An example of this is seawater : in it there is a mixture of salts that dissolve in the water.

In this mixture there is a dispersed phase and a dispersant phase. The dispersed phase is the solute substance . The dispersing phase is the solvent substance .

From these phases you can see various types of dispersed systems such as suspensions , colloids and true solutions .

Substances

    • Simple substances : a single chemical element or a chemical atom. You cannot break down or separate molecules. Examples: Gold (Au), Potassium (K), Fluorine (F2).
  • Compound substances : two chemical atoms of two or more different chemical elements coexist. These atoms join together in proportions defined by the periodic table. These substances can be separated and later become simple substances. Compound substances are represented by a chemical formula expressed on the periodic table . It represents 118 chemical elements that are divided into seven horizontal rows (periods) and eighteen vertical columns (groups). They can be:

 By the number of elements in your formula:

    • Binary substances Two chemical elements are constituted: nonmetals with metals. Example: Na20 = sodium oxide (2 sodium atoms + oxygen).
    • Ternary substances. Three chemical elements are constituted: a metal followed by the formula (OH) with oxidation number-1. Example: Fe (OH) 3 = iron hydroxide (iron + 3 oxyhydroxide atoms).
    • Quaternary substances. Four chemical elements are constituted: a metal, a nonmetal, a hydroxide ion and oxygen . Example: NaHSO4 = sodium acid sulfate

Examples of dispersed systems

  • Suspensions

Suspensions are several compound substances that are combined. In a suspension there is a solid (solute) and a liquid (solvent). Suspensions usually leave sediment at the bottom of the container. This when the solvent is liquid. Examples:

  1. sand + water, flour + water, coffee beans + water …
  2. dust + air, soot + air, volcano ash + air …

The mixtures between water and gas do not escape these similarities with suspensions. These types of mixtures are called fuels. These are considered as flammable substances that, depending on the reagent with a low or very low flash point, can represent a high or low risk of combustion . Examples :

  1. asphalt, pesticides, gasoline, kerosene
  2. Acrylic paints, nail polishes, acetone
  3. Anti-bacterial, lighter fluid
  4. Pet fleas, insecticides

As you can see, the suspensions are all around us and anywhere. The important thing is to know which can be fuels or emulsions and treat them as suspensions, whose substances are mixed (liquid + liquid or liquid + gas) that can be dangerous; they can harm or benefit human health. However, it is relevant to know their functions in everyday life.

  • Colloids

They are mixtures of substances that are found between solutions and suspensions . Its particles range in size from 10 to 100 nanometer . A nanometer measures the length that is equal to one millionth of a meter.

Colloids are characterized by being “sticky”. As such they cannot be fractionated or filterable. There are three types of colloids: starches, gelatins, and dextrans.

  • Starches

It is a slow-absorbing carbohydrate that is used in the human diet. Starches can be found in legumes , cereals , and tubers . Examples:

  1. Corn, wheat, barley, chickpea, oat, millet, sorghum flour …
  2. Peas, chickpeas, beans, beans, lentils …
  3. Potato, cassava, sweet potato
  • Jellies

It is a mixture of peptides and proteins . This is obtained by hydrolysis , that is, it is a chemical reaction between a water molecule and another macromolecule. In other words, water acts on another substance to form one or more new substance. Examples:

  1. Powdered gelatin for confectionery
  2. Vitamin C gelatin, collagen gelatin …
  3. Gelatin for cosmetic use for hair
  4. Gum arabic
  • Dextran

Dextran is a complex branching polysaccharide (complex carbohydrates made up of a large number of simple sugars). They are made up of many glucose molecules (a sticky sugar substance found in honey or fruit). In this case, dextran is often used in pharmacology, in surgical operations, in anticoagulants and anti-inflammatories. Examples:

  1. Medicinal use to make eye drops,
  2. Products containing fructose or sucrose

Also emulsions are considered colloids . The difference is that in emulsions the compound substances do not mix completely; but, these mixtures are liquid and it is possible to bind to a consistency.

The emulsion is a multiple composition of immiscible liquids. That is, they are liquids that can come together and form homogeneously. Both liquid substances also manage to separate into suspensions. Examples :

  1. milk (emulsion between water and fat)
  2. mayonnaise (emulsion between water + eggs + oil)
  3. butter (water + fat + salt emulsion)
  4. detergent (water + animal or vegetable fat)
  5. cosmetic lotions, asphalt, pesticides …
  • True solutions

A true solution is one where heterogeneous mixtures unite to become homogeneous. They can be diluted , concentrated and saturated .

  1. Diluted . A substance is considered dilute when it contains a small amount of solute relative to the solvent. Examples : Sugar with water, coffee brewed with sugar, cocoa powder diluted in water, fruit concentrates diluted with water for juicing, fruit frappe with ice and sugar.
  2. Concentrated . They are those that have a large amount of solute in relation to the solvent. Examples : fruit concentrates, cocoa concentrates, legume concentrates (chickpea, anjojolí), concentration of carbon dioxide combined with water.
      • Binary substances Two chemical elements are constituted: nonmetals with metals. Example: Na20 = sodium oxide (2 sodium atoms + oxygen).
      • Ternary substances. Three chemical elements are constituted: a metal followed by the formula (OH) with oxidation number-1. Example: Fe (OH) 3 = iron hydroxide (iron + 3 oxyhydroxide atoms).
      • Quaternary substances. Four chemical elements are constituted: a metal, a nonmetal, a hydroxide ion and oxygen . Example: NaHSO4 = sodium acid sulfateHave you ever heard that there are scattered people? When someone is “scattered”, do you imagine him as a person who mixes his emotions between being distracted, indifferent and at the same time annoyed by something? Well, something similar happens with certain elements of nature in a state of aggregation such as liquids , solids or gases .

        In chemistry, there are so  called disperse systems. In this case , it refers to the mixture of two or more substances (simple or compound) that are divided trying to join.

        This attempt of substances to mix is ​​messy because the intention is to merge or not. An example of this is seawater : in it there is a mixture of salts that dissolve in the water.

        In this mixture there is a dispersed phase and a dispersant phase. The dispersed phase is the solute substance . The dispersing phase is the solvent substance .

        From these phases you can see various types of dispersed systems such as suspensions , colloids and true solutions .

        Substances

          • Simple substances : a single chemical element or a chemical atom. You cannot break down or separate molecules. Examples: Gold (Au), Potassium (K), Fluorine (F2).Saturated . They are those that have the maximum amount of solute in relation to the solvent. Examples : milk with cocoa powder, mixture of cement with water, water with sugar, isotonic drinks (Gatorate, Powerdare), water with alcohol, water with glycerin …

            Examples of dispersed systems

        • Compound substances : two chemical atoms of two or more different chemical elements coexist. These atoms join together in proportions defined by the periodic table. These substances can be separated and later become simple substances. Compound substances are represented by a chemical formula expressed on the periodic table . It represents 118 chemical elements that are divided into seven horizontal rows (periods) and eighteen vertical columns (groups). They can be:

         By the number of elements in your formula:

    Examples of dispersed systems

    • Suspensions

    Suspensions are several compound substances that are combined. In a suspension there is a solid (solute) and a liquid (solvent). Suspensions usually leave sediment at the bottom of the container. This when the solvent is liquid. Examples:

    1. sand + water, flour + water, coffee beans + water …
    2. dust + air, soot + air, volcano ash + air …

    The mixtures between water and gas do not escape these similarities with suspensions. These types of mixtures are called fuels. These are considered as flammable substances that, depending on the reagent with a low or very low flash point, can represent a high or low risk of combustion . Examples :

    1. asphalt, pesticides, gasoline, kerosene
    2. Acrylic paints, nail polishes, acetone
    3. Anti-bacterial, lighter fluid
    4. Pet fleas, insecticides

    As you can see, the suspensions are all around us and anywhere. The important thing is to know which can be fuels or emulsions and treat them as suspensions, whose substances are mixed (liquid + liquid or liquid + gas) that can be dangerous; they can harm or benefit human health. However, it is relevant to know their functions in everyday life.

    • Colloids

    They are mixtures of substances that are found between solutions and suspensions . Its particles range in size from 10 to 100 nanometer . A nanometer measures the length that is equal to one millionth of a meter.

    Colloids are characterized by being “sticky”. As such they cannot be fractionated or filterable. There are three types of colloids: starches, gelatins, and dextrans.

    • Starches

    It is a slow-absorbing carbohydrate that is used in the human diet. Starches can be found in legumes , cereals , and tubers . Examples:

    1. Corn, wheat, barley, chickpea, oat, millet, sorghum flour …
    2. Peas, chickpeas, beans, beans, lentils …
    3. Potato, cassava, sweet potato
    • Jellies

    It is a mixture of peptides and proteins . This is obtained by hydrolysis , that is, it is a chemical reaction between a water molecule and another macromolecule. In other words, water acts on another substance to form one or more new substance. Examples:

    1. Powdered gelatin for confectionery
    2. Vitamin C gelatin, collagen gelatin …
    3. Gelatin for cosmetic use for hair
    4. Gum arabic
    • Dextran

    Dextran is a complex branching polysaccharide (complex carbohydrates made up of a large number of simple sugars). They are made up of many glucose molecules (a sticky sugar substance found in honey or fruit). In this case, dextran is often used in pharmacology, in surgical operations, in anticoagulants and anti-inflammatories. Examples:

    1. Medicinal use to make eye drops,
    2. Products containing fructose or sucrose

    Also emulsions are considered colloids . The difference is that in emulsions the compound substances do not mix completely; but, these mixtures are liquid and it is possible to bind to a consistency.

    The emulsion is a multiple composition of immiscible liquids. That is, they are liquids that can come together and form homogeneously. Both liquid substances also manage to separate into suspensions. Examples :

    1. milk (emulsion between water and fat)
    2. mayonnaise (emulsion between water + eggs + oil)
    3. butter (water + fat + salt emulsion)
    4. detergent (water + animal or vegetable fat)
    5. cosmetic lotions, asphalt, pesticides …
    • True solutions

    A true solution is one where heterogeneous mixtures unite to become homogeneous. They can be diluted , concentrated and saturated .

    1. Diluted . A substance is considered dilute when it contains a small amount of solute relative to the solvent. Examples : Sugar with water, coffee brewed with sugar, cocoa powder diluted in water, fruit concentrates diluted with water for juicing, fruit frappe with ice and sugar.
    2. Concentrated . They are those that have a large amount of solute in relation to the solvent. Examples : fruit concentrates, cocoa concentrates, legume concentrates (chickpea, anjojolí), concentration of carbon dioxide combined with water.
    3. Saturated . They are those that have the maximum amount of solute in relation to the solvent. Examples : milk with cocoa powder, mixture of cement with water, water with sugar, isotonic drinks (Gatorate, Powerdare), water with alcohol, water with glycerin ..

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