We explain that what are some examples of gases? A gas is a substance that is in the gaseous state of matter. Its particles are widely separated from each other and have low attractive forces , so they tend to flutter inside the container that contains them or disperse through the air if there is no surface in their way. Matter is generally called gas which, at normal conditions of temperature and pressure (NTP: 20 ° C, 1 atm) has these characteristics. what are some examples of gases
However, all substances that exist can appear as gases . There must only be the conditions necessary for its atoms or molecules to take the energy and positions that define the gas. For example, a metal like osmium (Os), one of the densest, will require a temperature of 5012 ° C to be a gas; it is so high that it is no longer a manageable condition in practice.
The density of gases is very small, since there are few molecules of them in each unit of volume and they are always traveling uncontrollably, without occupying the same space from one moment to another. To have a defined volume, they must be contained in a container. It is there where a physical form is defined in them, unlike solids that have a certain geometry.
Substances appear in the gaseous state when they are volatile (they have a lower boiling point than water) or they already have these characteristics in the environment. The elements that are gases under NTP conditions are: hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl) and noble gases. The first five and helium (He) have a small atomic mass, so even at low temperatures they are still gases.
If a gas with a large atomic mass (heavy atom) cools down a bit, it can be converted to a liquid state. If it is cooled still more, the solid will be obtained. For example, nitrogen gas (N 2 ) becomes liquid at –195.8 ° C and remains so until –210.1 ° C. If it cools further, it will become solid, down to absolute zero: –273.15 ° C. These are its boiling and melting points, temperatures that will be specific to each gas. what are some examples of gases
Characteristics of the gaseous state
In the gaseous state, the energy of separation between molecules and atoms exceeds the force of attraction between them, which gives rise to a series of characteristics or properties of gases.
- Gases contain fewer particles than liquids and solids.
- The particles are widely separated from each other, so their interaction is little.
- The particles are in constant and disorderly motion.
- Gases have no definite shape or volume.
- When there are collisions between particles, they change direction and speed in a chaotic way, which increases their distance and the volume of the gas.
- Most gases are intangible, colorless, and tasteless.
- The gases can occupy all the volume that they have available.
- The gases can be compressed into the shape of their container. what are some examples of gases
Changes of state of gaseous matter
According to the temperature and pressure variables, transformation processes of matter can be generated from one state of aggregation or another. The changes of matter that involve the gaseous state are the following:
Condensation or liquefaction
It is the passage from the gaseous state to the liquid state. It occurs when a gas is subjected to a drop in temperature, which reduces the movement of the particles and encourages them to contract with each other until they become liquid. We can point out two everyday examples with water: 1) when clouds transform into precipitation. 2) when a glass with a cold drink produces drops of water on the outside by condensing the hot air from the atmosphere. what are some examples of gases
Evaporation or boiling what are some examples of gases
It is the transformation from the liquid state to the gaseous state. It occurs when a liquid is subjected to an increase in temperature until it reaches the boiling point. An example can be seen when the water boils in the pan until it evaporates.
Sublimation what are some examples of gases
It is the change from the solid state to the gaseous state without having to go through the liquid state. Sublimation occurs thanks to temperatures so extreme that they do not allow the formation of liquid. An example of sublimation is found in dry ice that is released into vapor without going through the liquid state.
Reverse sublimation or deposition
It is the change from the solid state to the gaseous state without having to go through the liquid state. An example of reverse sublimation is the formation of frost on the ground.
Factors that affect gases what are some examples of gases
The behavior of gases is affected by the following variables:
- Volume (V): is the space occupied by gaseous matter, which is measured in liters (L). The gas will have greater or lesser volume depending on the separation between the particles and the space available to expand.
- Pressure (P): is the force applied per area. Pressure originates from the weight of air, therefore the higher a gas rises, the less pressure it experiences due to the less amount of air. In the case of gases, pressure is measured in atmospheres (atm).
- Temperature (T): is the measure of kinetic energy produced between the gas particles, which is measured in kelvin units (K). If a cold body of matter approaches a warm one, the cold body will raise its temperature.
These factors are in turn related to other elements inherent to gases such as:
- Quantity: it is the mass quantity of the gaseous matter and is measured in moles (n).
- Density: refers to the relationship between volume and weight.
30 examples of gases what are some examples of gases
- Hydrogen (H)
- Nitrogen (N)
- Oxygen (O)
- Fluorine (F)
- Chlorine (Cl)
- Helium (He)
- Neon (Ne)
- Argon (Ar)
- Krypton (Kr)
- Xenon (Xe)
- Nitrous oxide (N 2 O)
- Nitric oxide (NO)
- Dinitrogen trioxide (N 2 O 3 )
- Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 )
- Dinitrogen pentoxide (N 2 O 5 )
- Nitrogen trioxide (NO 3 )
- Dinitrogen Heptoxide (N 2 O 7 )
- Carbon monoxide (CO)
- Carbon dioxide (CO 2 )
- Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 )
- Sulfur trioxide (SO 3 )
- Methane (CH 4 )
- Ethane (C 2 H 6 )
- Propane (C 3 H 8 )
- Butane (C 4 H 10 )
- Ethylene (C 2 H 4 )
- Propylene (C 3 H 6 )
- Acetylene (C 2 H 2 )
- Hydrogen chloride (HCl)
- Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S)