Examples of Halogens

We explain that what are examples of halogens? Halogens are the chemical elements that make up group VIIA , one of the last of the periodic table of elements. They are, as such, salt formers , since they combine with metals in binary or oxysal salts.

The family of halogens consists of the elements fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I) and astate (At). Each halogen atom has seven valence electrons . Since they are too reactive to be free in the natural state, they have two atoms per molecule to be stable. In other words, they are diatomic in their elemental form.

Properties of halogens

Halogens are chemical elements with a great capacity to react with metals and non-metals to form binary salts such as sodium chloride (NaCl), oxysalts such as sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), hydro acids such as hydrochloric acid (HCl) and oxyacids such as perchloric acid (HClO 4 ). In addition, they participate in organic compounds such as alkyl halides .

The properties of each of them are the following:

Fluorine

Fluorine is a pale yellow gas, and it is the most non-metallic element of all . Many of their reactions result in explosions or fire. For example, wood and rubber spontaneously ignite in gaseous fluorine. This element has a strong tendency to gain an electron to form fluoride ions (F  ).

Its properties as an element are:

  • Atomic number 9
  • Atomic Weight (F): 19 g / mol
  • Molecular weight (F 2 ): 38 g / mol
  • It is highly oxidizing (easily removes 1 electron from the other element)
  • Density: 1,696 Kg / m 3
  • Electronegativity: 4.0, the largest in the entire periodic table

Fluorine is used to produce carbon compounds called fluorocarbons , such as Freon-12 , whose formula is CCl 2 F 2 . This is used as a refrigerant in air conditioners. The Teflon is a fluorocarbon is both a polymer; it has molecular units of two carbon atoms with four fluorine atoms that repeat thousands of times in long chains.

Fluorine compounds have a wide variety of uses. The sodium fluoride (NaF) is responsible for the prevention of dental caries. The uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) is heavier gas there, and used to enrich uranium element. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) is an insulating gas that is applied electronically.

Chlorine

Chlorine is a yellow-green gas, with an irritating odor, that reacts with almost all elements. In high concentrations it is toxic due to its oxidizing character ; however, in low concentrations it can save lives, as it is used to purify water. Chlorine is used in the production of paper, textiles, bleaches, medicines, insecticides, paints, and plastics.

Its properties as an element are:

  • Atomic number 17
  • Atomic Weight (Cl): 35.45 g / mol
  • Molecular weight (Cl 2 ): 70.90 g / mol
  • It is highly oxidizing (easily removes 1 electron from the other element)
  • Density: 3,214 Kg / m 3
  • Electronegativity: 3.16

Its compounds are very abundant. The sodium chloride (NaCl) is also known as table salt, and is used to intensify the flavors of foods. The hydrogen chloride (HCl) in aqueous solution, better known as hydrochloric or muriatic acid, is used for cleaning and disinfection of bathrooms.

Bromine

Bromine is the only non-metallic element that is liquid at room temperature . This blood red liquid reagent, which gives off a reddish vapor, is both pungent and toxic and must be handled with great care. It can be obtained by treating brine that is extracted from wells, or from seawater, which is no longer such an important source of bromine today.

Its properties as an element are:

  • Atomic number 35
  • Atomic Weight (Br): 79.90 g / mol
  • Molecular weight (Br 2 ): 159.80 g / mol
  • It is oxidizing (removes 1 electron from the other element)
  • Density: 3119 Kg / m 3
  • Electronegativity: 2.96

Bromine is used in the production of photographic chemicals, dyes, and flame retardants, as well as in the manufacture of a wide variety of other chemicals, including pharmaceuticals.

Iodine

Iodine is a steel gray crystalline solid at room temperature. When heated, solid iodine sublimates , that is, it goes directly from the solid to the vapor state without going through the liquid state. Iodine vapor has a beautiful bright purple color. This element, less abundant than the other halogens, is obtained from brine wells.

Also, certain marine plants, such as kelp, contain iodine. Iodine compounds are used in photographic chemicals and also in certain medications. The human body requires very small amounts of iodine to make the thyroid gland hormone thyroxine .

Its properties as an element are:

  • Atomic number 53
  • Atomic Weight (I): 126.90 g / mol
  • Molecular weight (I 2 ): 253.80 g / mol
  • Density: 4930 Kg / m 3
  • Electronegativity: 2.66

Astat

Astate is a radioactive halogen. It is the heaviest of these elements and is very rare on the planet. It is estimated that there are only 30 grams or less of it on the planet. Tiny amounts of this unstable element were first synthesized at the University of California at Berkeley in 1940. All of its isotopes are radioactive.

Its properties as an element are:

  • Atomic number 85
  • Atomic Weight (At): 210 g / mol
  • Electronegativity: 2.2

Examples of halogens

All halogens are:

  • Fluorine (F)
  • Chlorine (Cl)
  • Bromine (Br)
  • Iodine (I)
  • Astat (At)

Examples of compounds with halogens

  • Sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 )
  • Sodium Fluoride (NaF)
  • Calcium fluoride (CaF 2 )
  • Boron trifluoride (BF 3 )
  • Ammonium difluoride (NH 4 HF 2 )
  • Uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 )
  • Potassium Fluoride (KF)
  • Magnesium Fluoride (MgF 2 )
  • Hydrogen fluoride or hydrofluoric acid (HF)
  • Hydrogen chloride or hydrochloric acid (HCl)
  • Hydrogen bromide or hydrobromic acid (HBr)
  • Dichlorodifluorocarbon or Freon-12 (CCl 2 F 2 )
  • Sodium chloride (NaCl)
  • Calcium chloride (CaCl 2 )
  • Phosphorous trichloride (PCl 3 )
  • Phosphorous pentachloride (PCl 5 )
  • Strontium Chloride (SrCl 2 )
  • Barium chloride (BaCl 2 )
  • Lithium bromide (LiBr)
  • Sodium bromide (NaBr)
  • Potassium bromide (KBr)
  • Calcium bromide (CaBr 2 )
  • Magnesium bromide (MgBr 2 )
  • Strontium bromide (SrBr 2 )
  • Barium Bromide (BaBr 2 )
  • Sodium Iodide (NaI)
  • Potassium Iodide (KI)
  • Magnesium iodide (MgI 2 )
  • Calcium iodide (CaI 2 )
  • Strontium Iodide (SrI 2 )
  • Barium iodide (BaI 2 )
  • Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO)
  • Potassium hypochlorite (KClO)
  • Magnesium hypochlorite [Mg (ClO) 2 ]
  • Calcium hypochlorite [Ca (ClO) 2 ]
  • Strontium hypochlorite [Sr (ClO) 2 ]
  • Barium hypochlorite [Ba (ClO) 2 ]
  • Sodium Chlorite (NaClO 2 )
  • Potassium Chlorite (KClO 2 )
  • Magnesium Chlorite [Mg (ClO 2 ) 2 ]
  • Calcium chlorite [Ca (ClO 2 ) 2 ]
  • Strontium Chlorite [Sr (ClO 2 ) 2 ]
  • Barium chlorite [Ba (ClO 2 ) 2 ]
  • Sodium chlorate (NaClO 3 )
  • Potassium chlorate (KClO 3 )
  • Magnesium chlorate [Mg (ClO 3 ) 2 ]
  • Calcium chlorate [Ca (ClO 3 ) 2 ]
  • Strontium chlorate [Sr (ClO 3 ) 2 ]
  • Barium chlorate [Ba (ClO 3 ) 2 ]
  • Sodium perchlorate (NaClO 4 )
  • Potassium perchlorate (KClO 4 )
  • Magnesium perchlorate [Mg (ClO 4 ) 2 ]
  • Calcium perchlorate [Ca (ClO 4 ) 2 ]
  • Strontium perchlorate [Sr (ClO 4 ) 2 ]
  • Barium perchlorate [Ba (ClO 4 ) 2 ]
  • Zinc Chloride (ZnCl 2 )
  • Cadmium Chloride (CdCl 2 )
  • Ferrous Chloride (FeCl 2 )
  • Ferric Chloride (FeCl 3 )

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