Homo sapiens is the definition given to the first beginnings of the human race on earth . It originated on the African continent. Over time he moved to other regions due to the ice age, pursuing a better life. The protests of his build imposed on him the obligation to make clothes, take refuge from natural phenomena and hunt animals.
He developed writing, sculpture, painting, medicine, science, music, technology, philosophy and other elements that helped in an incredible way the development of his story. He had the ability to define himself and place much more powerful entities in his head, in addition to mastering abstract concepts such as emotions.
The term “homo sapiens” means “wise man . ” Scientists call archaic homo sapiens several species of homo that arose approximately 600,000 years ago and that share several similarities with homo sapiens, despite not having the same anatomy.
On the other hand, modern homo sapiens have an appearance similar to that of the human being of today. These individuals would have lived in a period between 260,000 and 100,000 years before the present. In the case of homo sapiens sapiens (modern man), it is estimated to be about 195,000 years old.
It is important to note, however, that the trinomial denomination (homo sapiens sapiens) does not tend to be used since the phylogenetic link between homo neanderthalensis and the human being of today has been discarded, however, it is sometimes used with in order to make a distinction between the archaic human being and the current one.
Characteristics of homo sapiens
The body of the homo has a high level of complexity, with a close interrelation between its organs , tissues, devices and systems . His capacity for locomotion and movement, his opposable thumbs (which facilitate the use of tools) and his sexual dimorphism are other physical characteristics.
The main comparison between Homo sapiens with other species of the genus Homo is in their mental capacities. The human being is characterized by being aware of himself, of his mortal condition, of his past; can plan and develop abstract thoughts.
Although it is possible to understand the concept of language in nature, it is often used to refer to natural languages , what humans use for their knowledge. Martin Heidegger considered that only man, homo sapiens, has the ability to use a language; In one of his most recognized theses, he stated that language is the house of being and the place where the essence of our species lies.
Ernst Cassirer, a contemporary philosopher of Heidegger born in Prussia , had a similar way of understanding these concepts: he defined homo sapiens as the highest expression of the symbolic animal; based on the fact that it is hardly possible to conceive a human thought without appealing to symbolism, especially significant as an element that collaborates with complex thought, which goes beyond the plane of instinct to transcend the tangible and the lived.
At present, our species shows clear modifications at the linguistic level according to the beginnings of homo sapiens , almost 200,000 years ago, as it studied its symbolic side through 6 thousand languages that are spoken on the planet. However, it should be noted that more than half of the world’s population speaks at least one of the following languages: Chinese, Spanish, Mandarin, Hindi, English, Arabic, Portuguese or Bengali.
Examples of Homo sapiens
- Homo habilis: Skillful man (extinct).
- Homo naledi: Star man (extinct).
- Homo gautengensis: Man from Gauteng (South Africa) (extinct).
- Homo rudolfensis: Man from Lake Rodolfo (act. Lake Turkana, Kenya and Ethiopia) (extinct).
- Homo ergaster: Working man (extinct).
- Homo georgicus: Georgian man (extinct).
- Homo erectus: Erect man (extinct).
- Homo antecessor: Explorer man – “the one who goes ahead” (extinct).
- Homo cepranensis: Man from Ceprano (province of Frosinone, Italy) (extinct).
- Homo floresiensis: Flower Man (Flores Island (Indonesia)) (extinct).
- Homo luzonensis: Man of Callao (Callao Cave, Philippines) (extinct).
- Homo heidelbergensis: Heidelberg man (extinct).
- Homo neanderthalensis: Neanderthal man (extinct).
- Homo rhodesiensis: Rhodesian man (extinct).
- Homo helmei: Man of Florisbad (South Africa) (extinct).
- Homo tsaichangensis: (Taiwan) (extinct).
- Denisovan hominid: (Russia) (extinct).
- Deer Cave Men: (China) (extinct).