Examples of Ions

We explain that what are examples of ions? Ions are particles that carry an electric charge, which are formed by a free atom or by a group of atoms linked together, which have valence electrons to cover or deliver. When they are able to deliver electrons, the ions are going to be positive. And when they can receive electrons, the ions are going to be negative.

Many chemical compounds are combinations of positive ions, also called cations , with negative ions, known as anions . Generally, cations are the atoms of metals with their available valence electrons; There is an exception with the ammonium ion, with the formula NH + , formed by nonmetal atoms.

Types of ions:

According to the number of atoms that make them up, ions can be classified into:

  • Monatomic ions
  • Polyatomic ions

Monatomic ions

Monatomic ions are those that have a single atom that can deliver or receive its valence electrons.

  • Some monatomic cations are: sodium (Na + ), potassium (K + ), magnesium (Mg +2 ), calcium (Ca +2 ), cupric (Cu +2 ), cuprous (Cu +1 ) , aluminum (Al +3 ), Lead (Pb +4 ).
  • Some monatomic anions are: chlorine (Cl  ), bromine (Br  ), oxygen (O -2 ), sulfur (S -2 ), nitride (N -3 ), phosphide (P -3 ), carbide (C -4 ).

Polyatomic ions

Polyatomic ions are those that have several atoms that can deliver or receive valence electrons from any of them.

  • The polyatomic cation par excellence is: ammonium (NH + )
  • Some polyatomic anions are: bicarbonate (HCO  ), carbonate (CO -2 ), sulfate (SO -2 ), sulfite (SO -2 ), phosphate (PO -3 ), phosphite (PO -3 ).

Ionic substances and electrolytes

Ionic substances are those whose molecules are formed by the bond between two ions : a cation and an anion. These are characterized by having a crystalline and orderly structure , which is manifested as geometric and colorful shapes in the stones of natural deposits. One property that stands out of these substances is that they are soluble in water.

When ionic substances mix with water, they separate into their component charges: the cation and the anion. These charged particles are dispersed in the so-called aqueous solution , which then acquires the ability to carry an electrical current through it, and will become an electrical conductor. These mixtures are called electrolytes .

This quality of ionic substances is used in electrochemistry to make an electric current pass from point A to point B. In electrochemical cells, two bars of different metals are immersed in the aqueous solution, and as the electric current passes, These give off or absorb the circulating electrons.

Both metal rods are called electrodes . The one that is released from electrons in the solution is called the anode , and it has an opposite, positive charge. The one that receives electrons in the passage of current is called a cathode , and it has a negative charge. 

Examples of monatomic ions
  • Fluoride (F  )
  • Chloride (Cl  )
  • Bromide (Br  )
  • Iodide (I  )
  • Oxygen (O -2 )
  • Sulfur (S -2 )
  • Selenide (Se -2 )
  • Nitride (N -3 )
  • Phosphide (P -3 )
  • Carbide (C -4 )
  • Hydride (H  )
  • Hydrogen (H + )
  • Lithium (Li + )
  • Sodium (Na + )
  • Potassium (K + )
  • Magnesium (Mg +2 )
  • Calcium (Ca +2 )
  • Aluminum (Al +3 )
  • Gallium (Ga +3 )
  • Carbon (C +4 )
  • Silicon (Si +4 )
  • Zinc (Zn +2 )
  • Ferrous (Fe +2 )
  • Ferric (Fe +3 )
  • Plumbous (Pb +2 )
  • Lead (Pb +4 )
  • Stannous (Sn +2 )
  • Stannic (Sn +4 )
  • Mercurose (Hg +1 )
  • Mercuric (Hg +2 )

Examples of polyatomic ions

  • Ammonium (NH + )
  • Hypochlorite (ClO  )
  • Chlorite (ClO  )
  • Chlorate (ClO  )
  • Perchlorate (ClO  )
  • Hypobromite (BrO  )
  • Bromite (BrO  )
  • Bromate (BrO  )
  • Perbromate (BrO  )
  • Hypoiodite (IO  )
  • Iodite (IO  )
  • Idate (IO  )
  • Periodate (IO  )
  • Bicarbonate (HCO  )
  • Carbonate (CO -2 )
  • Bisulfite (HSO  )
  • Sulfite (SO -2 )
  • Sulfate (SO -2 )
  • Phosphite (PO -3 )
  • Phosphate (PO -3 )
  • Permanganate (MnO  )
  • Chromate (CrO -2 )
  • Dichromate (Cr 2 O -2 )
  • Peroxide (O -2 )
  • Acetate (CH 3 COO-)
  • Formate (HCOO-)
  • Propionate (C 2 H 5 COO-)
  • Butyrate (C 3 H 7 COO-)
  • Ethanolate (C 2 H 5 O-)

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