We explain that what are examples of ions? An ion is an electrically charged particle that forms when an atom gains or loses electrons. Depending on the item in question, it will be its load. examples of ions
Types of ions examples of ions
In 1839, thanks to the research of Michael Faraday, it was established that according to the electrical charge they possess, ions are classified as positive (those of metals and hydrogen of acids) and negative (such as the OH group of bases) .
Negative ions are known as anions (which are attracted to the anode) and positive ions are called cations (which are attracted to the cathode). examples of ions
It is an ion that has a large number of electrons so its electrical charge is negative . Non-metals are in this group, but there are some exceptions.
Anions can be monatomic, polyatomic, and acidic anions.
Cation examples of ions
A cation is a positively charged ion , that is, they have excess protons.
Here those formed from metals are concentrated. However, cations formed from non-metals can be found.
The cations formed by metals are the most common and important.
Other types of ions examples of ions
Although anions and cations are the main types of ions, there are also other less common types of ions, these are dianion , zwitterion and ionic radicals.
- Dianion : has two negative charges.
- Zwitterion: with a net charge equal to zero but with two isolated charges, one positive and one negative, which make it neutral.
- Ionic radicals: with an irregular number of electrons, strong instability and reactivity.
The formation of ions is explained by the transfer or admission of electrons that are generally found in the last orbit .
That is, if an atom X accepts an electron, the electrical balance it had will be broken, as it comes to have one more negative charge, thus obtaining a negative ion: X. If it had accepted two electrons, the result would be a ion X + .
Otherwise, that is, if an atom X gives up an electron, it will become a positive ion, X +, since the number of negative charges will be one unit less than the number of positive charges on the nucleus or protons; if the electrons were to give up, the ion X 2+ would be obtained .
Ionic or electrovalent bond
The electrovalent bond is a type of chemical bond in which a positive and a negative ion are held together by an electrostatic attractive force .
Characteristics examples of ions
- In general, this type of bond occurs between metallic elements (from groups I and II) and non-metallic elements (from groups VI and VII).
- They are excellent conductors of electricity when the ions are free. In contrast, in solid state they do not conduct electricity.
- In ionic bonding, the valences of the elements can be positive, like those of metals in salts, or negative, like those of chlorine in chlorides.
- When one ion attracts six others of opposite sign, an ionic crystal lattice is created whose juxtaposition gives rise to a crystalline building .
- They are very strong bonds because they depend only on ions.
- The solids formed, called crystalline solids , are polyhedral, they break according to planes known as exfoliation , their melting point is peculiar and there is a regular distribution of their constituent atoms, ions and molecules.
Examples of ions
- F – fluoride
- Cl – chloride
- Br – bromide
- I – iodide
- S 2- sulfur.
- SO 4 2- sulfate
- NO 3- nitrate
- PO 4 3- phosphate
- ClO – hypochlorite
- ClO 2- chlorite
- ClO 3- chlorate
- ClO 4- perchlorate
- CO 3 2- carbonate
- BO 3 3- borate
- Na + sodium
- K + potassium
- Ca 2+ calcium
- Ba 2+ barium
- Mg 2+ magnesium
- Al 3+ aluminum
- Pb 2+ lead (II)
- Zn 2+ zinc
- Fe 2+ iron (II) or ferrous
- Fe 3+ iron (III) or ferric
- Hg 2+ mercury (II) or mercuric
- Cr 3+ chromium (III)
- Mn 2 + / sup> manganese (II)
- Co 2+ cobalt (II) or cobalt
- Co 3+ cobalt (III) or cobalt
- Ni 2+ nickel (II) or nickel
- Ni 3+ nickel (III) or nickel
- NH 4+ ammonium
10 more examples of ions:
- Aluminum Al +
- Galio Ga 3+
- Hydrogen H +
- Helio He 2+
- Lithium Li +
- Chlorate ClO 3 –
- Hydroxide OH –
- CN cyanide –
- Hydronium H 3 O +
- Zinc Zn 2+