We explain that what are examples of mixtures in chemistry? The mixtures are the combination of two or more substances to their own physical characteristics and chemical, and that the same space occupying be a new form with shared properties. This union is physical and the components are not altered in their chemical nature. How easily the substances will bind depends on their physical state and how miscible they are with each other. That is, how much can they contain each other. examples of mixtures in chemistry
Types of Mixtures examples of mixtures in chemistry
Mixtures can be classified according to two main criteria:
- Your physical condition
- Its visible phases
Types of mixtures by their physical state
Mixtures can contain substances in all three physical states of matter: solid, liquid and gaseous; so, due to the variety in which they can interact, these types of mixtures are going to be had:
- Solid-solid mixtures
- Solid-liquid mixtures
- Solid-gas mixtures
- Liquid-liquid mixtures
- Liquid-gas mixtures
- Gas-gas mixtures
The solid-solid mixtures are formed with two solid components. Among them you can find the following examples:
- Mix of cement with sand, both as fine powders. The mixture looks like a different colored powder.
- Alloys, which are the mixture of two metals to form a new one with reinforced properties. For the mixture to occur, both must be melted.examples of mixtures in chemistry
The solid-liquid mixtures are formed with a liquid and another component solid. Among them you can find: examples of mixtures in chemistry
- Aqueous solutions, which carry a large amount of water and a solid substance that is dispersed in it.examples of mixtures in chemistry
The solid-gas mixtures are formed with a solid component and gaseous. Among them you can find:
- Pumice stones, which have abundant holes can be said to carry air inside them.
The liquid-liquid mixtures are formed with two liquid components. Among them you can find:
- The combination of water and ethyl alcohol C 2 H 5 OH, components that can contain each other in infinite proportions.
- The combination of water and sulfuric acid H 2 SO 4 . By the way, for its preparation there must be a lot of caution. You have to pour the acid little by little, through the wall of the container that contains water. The contact emits a lot of heat and can be aggressive.
The liquid-gas mixtures are formed with a liquid and gaseous component. Among them you can find:
- Carbonated drinks, which are the combination of flavored water and carbon dioxide CO 2 , which is a gas that causes bubbles in the liquid.examples of mixtures in chemistry
The gas-gas mixtures are formed with two gaseous components. As gases have their particles very dispersed among themselves, the proportions in which they can be mixed are very many. Among them you can find:examples of mixtures in chemistry
- LP gas, which mainly carries C 3 H 8 propane and C 4 H 10 butane , and which is a fuel widely used in homes and industry.
Types of mixtures by their visible phases
Depending on how the substances are dispersed among themselves, there can be two types of mixture: homogeneous and heterogeneous.examples of mixtures in chemistry
The homogeneous mixtures lead components uniformly dispersed , so these are seen as a single phase and their properties are constant at any point. At first glance, a homogeneous mixture looks like a single substance. It acquires the shared characteristics of all its components.
Some examples of homogeneous mixtures are:
- Dye water
- Vanilla ice cream
- Natural gas
- LP gas
Characteristics of a homogeneous mixture
- The mixture of its components is uniform.
- It is in a single phase or state of matter.
- It is not possible to differentiate the substances that compose it with the naked eye.
- It is made up of one or more solutes and a solvent.
- It remains stable as long as the same conditions (temperature, pressure) are present.
- Solute and solvent are miscible, particularly in liquid state.
Separation of homogeneous mixtures
The distillation is a way of separating homogeneous mixtures consisting of liquid miscible (soluble) or a liquid and a solid. In this case, the liquids are separated by boiling. Once the boiling point of one of the components is reached, it evaporates, separating from the other. An example of this happens when alcoholic beverages are distilled.
Another way of separating homogeneous mixtures is crystallization . In this, it is sought that the solute in the non-solid phase loses solubility, through its transformation into a solid. This can be achieved by evaporating the liquid, cooling it, causing a reaction in it or adding some other element. An example of this is found in the production of salt from sea water.
Other separation methods are chromatography, evaporation, and solvent extraction.
The heterogeneous mixtures lead components scattered irregularly , and is therefore at first glance differ two or more phases, one for each participant substance. These types of mixtures are the easiest to separate by physical mechanisms such as decantation, filtration, sieving, evaporation, among others.
Some examples of heterogeneous mixtures are:
- Water with oil
- Water with sand
- A salad
Characteristics of a heterogeneous mixture
- There is no uniform distribution of the elements that make it up.
- It is common that its components can be distinguished with the naked eye.
- Any mixture that presents two states of matter is heterogeneous.
- Its components are not miscible and are kept physically separate.
Separation of heterogeneous mixtures
Heterogeneous mixtures can be separated using different methods such as filtration, decantation, sedimentation, centrifugation, drying or magnetic separation.
In the case of filtration , this consists of separating the components of a mixture that are in different phases or states of matter, specifically a non-soluble solid and a liquid. An example would be using a filter to separate the pulp or other parts of a fruit, from the resulting juice.
When a mixture is composed of two liquids that do not dissolve in each other and with different densities, this mixture can be separated by means of the decantation method .
This consists of letting the mixture rest in a container and, when one of the liquids remains on the surface, use a funnel to pour it into another container. For example, if you want to separate water and oil, wait for the oil to reach the surface, and then place it in another container.
Other ways of separating heterogeneous mixtures are sedimentation (waiting for one of the components to settle), centrifugation (separating the components by rotation).
40 examples of mixtures examples of mixtures in chemistry
- Steel: Iron-carbon mixture (alloy)
- Sulfuric acid (Solution)
- Sand water (Solution)
- Chlorinated water (Solution)
- Honey water (Solution)
- Salt water (Solution)
- Sea water, with various minerals (Solution)
- Air: Homogeneous mixture of oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and other gases.
- Alcohol with water (Solution)
- Icing sugar and flour (solid mix)
- Bronze (alloy made from a mixture of copper and tin)
- Concrete and water.
- Fruit salad: Simple solid mix of various components (different fruits)
- Mud: A mixture of water and earth.
- Constantán: Nickel-copper alloy.
- Cupronickel: Copper-nickel alloy.
- Aerosol deodorant (fizzy mix)
- Detergent with water: it is a universal solvent (water), which is mixed with a solid (powder detergent), dissolving the solid and mixing it with water.
- Gelatin: mixture of gelatin and water. (it is a colloidal solution)
- Gel (it is a colloidal solution)
- Aerosol insecticide: (gas mixture)
- Nickel silver: copper, nickel and Zinc (alloy)
- The dough to prepare a cake
- Preparing cement for bonding bricks
- Brine is an example of a liquid heterogeneous mixture (solution)
- Ammonium hydroxide solution
- Milk: fats, water and other components (liquid emulsion)
- Lemonade: Mix of water, lemon juice and sugar.
- Mayonnaise: A mixture of oil, egg, vinegar and lemon juice.
- Nitinol: A mixture of the metals Titanium and nickel (it is an alloy)
- White gold: gold, nickel, palladium or silver, (alloy)
- Oil painting
- Paint in alcohol
- Sterling silver: Mix of silver and copper
- Soft drink or soda: it is the result of the mixture of water, sugars, flavorings and gas
- Ink in water
- A cup of coffee: coffee, sugar and other substances (it is a solution)
- Colored glass
- Vinegar: water, acetic acid and other components.
- Wine: it is the mixture of water, sugars, alcohol and various coloring substances among others.