Types of raw materials
Raw materials can be divided according to two main criteria:
- According to its initial state
- According to its origin
Types of raw materials according to their initial state
Depending on their initial state, raw materials are classified into three categories:
- Raw materials in crude
- Raw materials in their natural state
- Consumable raw materials
The raw materials raw are those that make up a more complex and therefore need to be separated before use. As an example , hydrocarbons , organic chemical compounds that are part of oil, but must be obtained from it through physical processes. Later, in their purest possible state, they can be used for specific purposes.
The raw materials in their natural state are those that can be used directly to produce products from them. For example, wood from trees that is cut and joined with nails and glue to make furniture; precious stones, cut with a metal tip and well polished, can be put into jewelry; the sand, which when melted creates the glass.
The consumable raw materials are used to create a product, but the end is not part of it. They are agents who participate so that the process is easier and less money is spent on production. An example is fuel oil, an extremely thick liquid that is burned to generate heat and thus create steam in the boilers of thermoelectric plants. These types of raw materials can be renewable or non-renewable, depending on how they can be made available in nature again.
Types of raw materials according to their origin
Depending on their origin or provenance from nature, raw materials are classified into:
- Mineral raw materials
- Animal raw materials
- Vegetable raw materials
- Fossil raw materials
The raw minerals are inorganic substances that make up the earth ‘s crust. They are found in mountains and underground deposits, and have been formed by conditions of humidity and high pressure. In this category are metals and salts such as chlorides, sulfides, bromides and silicates, for example.
Animal raw materials are those that come from some animal species. It can be their meat, their fat, their milk, their skins. In this case, products made from them also count as raw materials, such as cooked meat, cheeses, butter, cream; This is because these products are part of other more complex products, such as cakes and dishes that we consume in restaurants.
Plant raw materials constitute parts or all of plant species. The proportion of them that are used will depend on the process in question. For example, from trees, wood can be used to make furniture or dry logs as firewood to generate heat for an environment. Of some medicinal plants such as chamomile, spearmint and oregano, the dehydrated leaves are used to prepare infusions (tea).
The raw materials fossils are all those substances come from the subsoil as a result of the formation of sediments and high pressures them with the passage of time from the geologic eras. It is about oil and all its components, such as methane gas, propane gas, butane gas, octanes, fuel oil, diesel, benzene, naphthalene. From them, plastics such as polyethylene and polypropylene can be created.
80 examples of raw materials
- Olive oil
- Safflower oil
- Soy oil
- Methyl alcohol
- Ethyl alcohol
- Isopropyl alcohol
- Baking soda
- Slaked lime
- Ethylene glycol
- Natural gas
- LP gas
- Animal fats
- Precious stones