Examples of scientific methods for secondary school

Scientific method

It is a method that is used to determine or formulate theories or laws by scientists, this in order to determine the study or the reason for some natural phenomenon. The study of this method facilitates the explanation of various events of a natural nature, this in order to understand and know their usefulness in the life of the human being.

This method has a series of steps, namely:

  • Observation

This is the first step in this method. Observation turns out to be of vital importance when carrying out this type of research, since it is not only looking, it is detailing the environment and the small details in things or in a phenomenon.

In this sense, both the 5 senses and the necessary measuring and observation devices are used in order to collect the greatest amount of precise data.

  • Problem Statement

After making an objective and direct observation, we obtain information that allows us to ask ourselves the necessary questions that are related to the investigation. That is why the approach is made with a clear and precise question.

  • Formulation of the hypothesis

This space seeks to provide all possible answers to the problem that has previously been raised. These possible answers are known as verifiable hypotheses, that is, they must be evaluated and corroborated in order to determine which is the correct answer and which is not.

  • Design of experiment

At this point in the implementation of the method, a variety of experiments are carried out taking into account the materials to be implemented, the steps to follow, intervening factors and the estimated time of application. Through the process of experimentation, data is evaluated, confirmed, verified and compared.

  • Data logging and analysis

At this point in the investigation, a record and annotation of everything that is done and observed is required. This in order to maintain control in order to reach a correct conclusion.

  • Conclusion

Once all the previous steps have been carried out, the conclusion of the work can be carried out and two aspects can be thrown as a result, the first would be the confirmation of the hypothesis and the second would be the denial of it.

Examples of scientific methods

  1. Example 1
  • Remark: water container
  • Approach: What are the factors that influence the evaporation of the water contained in the container found in the open air?
  • Formulation of the hypothesis: they can influence the evaporation of the liquid contained in the container:

Room temperature

The surface that is exposed to the open air

The amount or volume of the water

  • Design of experiment: we carried out the tests in four containers of water that have the same dimension and size and we identified them. In three of the four containers we add 1 liter of water, in four we will add 2 liters of water. Container 3 is to be covered in half. We are going to place container two under a lamp and the other 3 in a window. Take temperature samples before and after placing them during the day.
  • Data recording and analysis: the variables of the 4 containers are evaluated taking into account the temperature, the surface, the volume of liquid and the mass of water that has evaporated.
  • Conclusion: the water that has evaporated does not depend on the quantity but on the environment and the surface that is exposed.
  1. Example 2
  • Observation: the leaves of the trees are greenish.
  • Approach: Why are the leaves green?
  • Data collection: research in books of a concept called chlorophyll and what plants contain.
  • Hypothesis formulation: tree leaves are green thanks to an element called chlorophyll.
  • Experiment: I put a leaf of a tree in a bottle of alcohol and bring it to a boil.
  • Results: the alcohol turns green.
  • Conclusion: the leaves are actually green, due to an element called chlorophyll that is responsible for giving the greenish color to the leaves of the trees.
  1. Example 3
  • Observation: the sun rises during the day.
  • Approach: Why does the sun rise during the day?
  • Data collection: documentary research where it is determined that thanks to the rotation and translation process of the planet earth, the sun generates enough light to make it daytime.
  • Hypothesis formulation: the light that is reflected during the day is thanks to the rays emitted by the sun.
  • Experiment: I check the light that is emitted by day and which is the star that is reflected in the sky.
  • Results: light is emitted by the sun
  • Conclusion: the sun rises during the day thanks to the rotating process of the planet and the light that this star emits on it.
  1. Example 4
  • Remark: rain comes from clouds
  • Approach: Why do the rains come from the clouds?
  • Data collection: nature and science books determine that thanks to the evaporation of water, clouds are loaded and produce precipitation
  • Hypothesis formulation: the water that falls from the sky comes from the clouds thanks to the evaporation of the water generated by the sun.
  • Experiment: we verify the evaporation process.
  • Results: effectively the water evaporates and condenses in the clouds.
  • Conclusion: thanks to the evaporation process that is generated in rivers and streams, the evaporated water is condensed in the clouds and later discharged in the form of rain, that is why the rains come from the clouds.
  1. Example 5
  • Observation: a bouquet of flowers will last longer if an aspirin is added to the water.
  • Approach: Does a bouquet of flowers last longer if an aspirin is added to water or chlorine?
  • Data collection: The water placed on the bouquets in the containers usually accumulates bacteria. That is why we must verify if it is chlorine or aspirin that makes a bouquet of flowers last in a vase.
  • Experiment: three vases with three bouquets of flowers will be used. All will be under the same conditions of temperature, light and amount of water. One of the three will be made up of just water and flowers, the second will have an aspirin in the container, and the third will only have a few drops of bleach.
  • Results: after several days of observation and sampling, the best result will be determined.
  • Conclusion: in this space it will be shown whether the hypothesis raised has been true or false.

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