The number of bones will be determined according to the species, in humans the total number of bones in an adult is 206, while a dog has 321, a number that can also vary according to the species of these animals.
What is the function of the bones
Bones are the most rigid structure that supports vertebrates and are part of the locomotor system , they fulfill the following functions:
- Supports muscles and soft tissues
- Protects internal organs, such as the lungs
- Movement aided by muscles and tendons
- Mineral homeostasis which is the storage of certain minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sodium necessary for the muscles to contract and thus execute the movement supported by the bones.
- Production of blood cells through the bone marrow of the bones, in this case, the so-called red bone marrow.
- Storage of reserve fats through yellow bone marrow.
- Endocrine thanks to the secretion of various substances through osteoblasts and osteocytes that influence the absorption of phosphate in the kidneys and help the pancreas in the production of insulin.
Their main function is to cushion the weight exerted by the body when it is in motion, they are very similar in shape to that of a small cube, mostly made up of cancellous bone that helps it absorb the load of weight, they are located on feet, hands, knee and face.
They also fulfill the same function as the rest of the bones of forming part of the body’s support structure and are the ones that, due to their small size, are in the center of the longest bones.
Examples of short bones
- Tarsi or tarsal bones . They are the small bones that articulate in the foot, specifically in the heel: cuboid , navicular , talus and wedges or wedges , these join directly with the metatarsals, the calcaneus is the bone that is more towards the heel and is supportive in the back of the foot.
- Carpus or carpal bones . The carpal bones are 8, they are the bones that are between the forearm and the hand, the so-called wrist, the radius articulates directly with two carpal bones, these bones are in two rows, each of 4: the upper row consists of of scaphoid , lunate , pyramidal and pisiform , the bottom row is formed by the trapezium , trapezoid , capitate , and hamate .
- Patella or patella . It is a short bone of the sesamoid type located in the anterior part of the knee region, it articulates directly with the femur, it has a triangular shape at its base and convex on its anterior face.
- Malar or zygomatic bone . They are paired bones that are located in the most external and lateral part of the face, between the maxilla and the frontal, it is only in mammals.
- Nasal bone . It is the so-called “bridge of the nose”, it is a fairly small bone, it has two bony structures, the cartilage of the nose is inserted into them and it is articulated with the frontal bone, with the upper jaw and with the ethmoid bone.