The amount of solute within the solvent determines the property called concentration . The concentration is the ratio of the amount of solute to the amount of solvent, and the higher this ratio, the greater the share of the solute in the properties of the solution. Of course there is a maximum amount of solute that can be mixed with the solvent, and this will tell how far the solution can be concentrated. This property is called solubility .
Types of solutions
Solutions can be classified according to two criteria:
- The physical states of its components
- The amount of solute or concentration
Types of solutions according to physical states
Substances in all physical states can be mixed, resulting in solutions of the following types, indicated in the solvent-solute mode :
- Solid-gas solutions , such as pumice stone that has air in its structure.
- Solid-liquid solutions , such as wet sand.
- Solid-solid solutions , such as bronze, which is an alloy of copper and tin.
- Liquid-gas solutions , such as carbonated water.
- Liquid-liquid solutions , such as water with alcohol.
- Liquid-solid solutions , such as sugar water.
- Gas-gas solutions , such as ambient air, which has nitrogen, oxygen, and more gases.
- Gas-liquid solutions , such as aerosols that carry liquid particles.
- Gas-solid solutions , such as smog, which carries combustion gases and soot.
Types of solutions according to their concentration
According to the proportion of solute that they have with respect to that of solvent, the solutions will be classified as follows:
- Diluted solutions: they have little solute.
- Concentrated solutions: they have a considerable amount of solute.
- Saturated solutions: they have as much solute as they can dissolve; they are on the edge.
- Supersaturated solutions: they have too much solute and their particles are beginning to be noticed, so that the mixture is no longer homogeneous.
In the case of supersaturated liquid solutions, these can be subjected to heating , and at these high temperatures the point at which the excess solute can be incorporated will be reached, until this mixture will become a saturated solution. This is the case of the sugar water solution. At room temperature, it becomes saturated and the sugar settles to the bottom of the container. However, if boiled, they can dissolve even in equal parts.
30 examples of solutions
- Sugar water : sugar is the solid solute. Water is the liquid solvent.
- Coffee with milk : coffee is the solid solute. Milk is the liquid solvent.
- Oil paint with thinner : thinner or thinner is the liquid solute. Oil paint is the solvent if it is found in greater quantity.
- Salt water : salt is the solid solute. Water is the liquid solvent.
- Air : solutes are the gases with a lower proportion, such as oxygen and noble gases. The solvent is nitrogen, which covers more than 3/4 of the entire mixture.
- Hydrogen peroxide : hydrogen peroxide is the liquid solute. Water is the liquid solvent.
- Oxygen in water : oxygen is the gaseous solute. Water is the liquid solvent. It is the oxygen that the fish assimilate for their breathing.
- Mayonnaise: it is an emulsion that contains oil, vinegar, egg, salt, among other ingredients.
- Steel: it is an alloy that contains solid iron with other elements, such as a portion of carbon to increase hardness.
- Carbonated water: it is a solution of water with carbon dioxide gas as solute.
- Wine: wine is a mixture that contains water, the fermented sugars of the grape and microparticles of this fruit that provide antioxidants.
- Beer: it comes from mixing barley with yeast and hops.
- Grout: it is a mixture widely used in construction consisting of water and lime.
- American coffee: it is the concentrated mixture that contains the coffee extract in water.
- Espresso coffee: it is the saturated mixture that contains the coffee extract in little water.
- Milk chocolate: it is a solution of solid chocolate, with its own constituents, and milk as a solvent.
- Liquid soap: it is the result of mixing surfactants, flavorings and other cleaning agents.
- Black water: it is the mixture of domestic and industrial waste that is carried by water as a solvent.
- Fog: it is the mixture of water vapor particles with those of the air.
- Nail varnish: it is the mixture of acetone with dicarboxylic acids.
- Sand: it is the mixture of the tiny particles of different minerals, including silicon dioxide, silicates and carbonates.
- Gold dental amalgam: Mercury acts as a solvent to incorporate other metals such as gold. The result is a mixture that can solidify to protect a tooth.
- Smog: it is the mixture of combustion gases that act as solvents, and particles such as soot and dust as solutes.
- Blood: it is the mixture of plasma as solvent and red, white blood cells and thrombocytes as solutes.
- Sweat: it is a solution composed of water as a solvent and salts such as sodium chloride as waste.
- Hydrochloric acid solution: in minimal concentrations, it is used to carry out neutralization titrations in industrial laboratories.
- Sulfuric acid solution: in minimal concentrations, it is used to carry out neutralization titrations in industrial laboratories.
- Sodium chloride solution: used in argentometry, to standardize silver nitrate solutions. The latter are used to analyze chlorides in water samples.
- Glucose water
- Water with honey