# Examples of Valence Electrons

We explain that what are examples of valence electrons? The electrons are subatomic particles that are traveling around the nucleus of each atom . They are distributed by energy levels in the atomic orbitals. Depending on the chemical element in question, there is a specific number of electrons, which coincides with that of protons. In the atom, the positive charges of the protons are offset by the negative charges of the electrons.

Electrons have a definite way of accommodating themselves around the nucleus ; this is in layers, each of which carries a number of them . The way electrons are distributed is described by the electron configuration . This is a method that indicates the level and sublevel at which the electrons are located.

Unlike electron configuration, which is very specific, there is a way to tell how electrons are distributed, and it is from the Bohr-Rutherford atomic model . According to this, electrons go, from the nucleus to the outside of the atom, in numbers of 2, 8, 18, 32, which are the maximum numbers that the orbitals can contain. These start from the sublevels indicated by the electronic configuration.

The electrons in the shallowest orbital, which can be between 1 and 8, are called valence electrons . These tell which group A of the periodic table the chemical element is in. For example, those with 1 valence electron are in group IA, those with 2 in IIA, and so on.

### Electrons and chemical valence

Valence electrons represent the so-called chemical valence or oxidation state . This is a number that indicates how many electrons the atom can share or receive . Atoms that have 1, 2, or 3 valence electrons have a valence of +1, +2, or +3. This means that they can lose 1, 2 or 3 negative charges , giving them up in a chemical reaction.

Atoms that have 4 electrons can either share or receive 4 electrons. Therefore, the valence can be +4 or -4. Everything is based on the electron having at the end 8 electrons in its last shell . According to Lewis, this is called the octet rule and indicates that the atom reaches chemical stability .

Atoms that have 5, 6, or 7 electrons can receive 3, 2, or 1 electrons to complete their octet rule. This means that the valence will be -3, -2 or -1, when dealing with negative charges. Atoms that have 8 electrons in their last shell are stable and do not need to share or receive electrons. Therefore, the valence of the latter will be 0.

Among the transition metals we find elements whose valence electrons can vary . For example, iron (Fe), which can have valences +2 and +3. This is because electrons can change orbitals, either absorbing or emitting energy . To descend toward the core, they generally emit energy. To go to the surface, they absorb energy to stay there.

• Hydrogen has 1 valence electron.
• Lithium has 1 valence electron.
• Sodium has 1 valence electron.
• Potassium has 1 valence electron.
• Rubidium has 1 valence electron.
• Cesium has 1 valence electron.
• Francium has 1 valence electron.
• Beryllium has 2 valence electrons.
• Magnesium has 2 valence electrons.
• Calcium has 2 valence electrons.
• Strontium has 2 valence electrons.
• Barium has 2 valence electrons.
• The radius has 2 valence electrons.
• Boron has 3 valence electrons.
• Aluminum has 3 valence electrons.
• Gallium has 3 valence electrons.
• Indium has 3 valence electrons.
• Thallium has 3 valence electrons.
• Carbon has 4 valence electrons.
• Silicon has 4 valence electrons.
• Germanium has 4 valence electrons.
• Tin has 4 valence electrons.
• Lead has 4 valence electrons.
• Nitrogen has 5 valence electrons.
• Phosphorus has 5 valence electrons.
• Arsenic has 5 valence electrons.
• Antimony has 5 valence electrons.
• Bismuth has 5 valence electrons.
• Oxygen has 6 valence electrons.
• Sulfur has 6 valence electrons.
• Selenium has 6 valence electrons.
• Tellurium has 6 valence electrons.
• Polonium has 6 valence electrons.
• Fluorine has 7 valence electrons.
• Chlorine has 7 valence electrons.
• Bromine has 7 valence electrons.
• Iodine has 7 valence electrons.
• The astat has 7 valence electrons.
• Helium has 2 valence electrons.
• Neon has 8 valence electrons.
• Argon has 8 valence electrons.
• Krypton has 8 valence electrons.
• Xenon has 8 valence electrons.
• Radon has 8 valence electrons.
• Iron has 2 or 3 valence electrons.
• Zinc has 2 valence electrons.
• Nickel has 1 or 2 valence electrons.
• Gold has 1 or 3 valence electrons.
• Silver has 1 valence electron.

Check Also
Close