Examples of Viruses

We explain that what are examples of viruses? Within biology there are several types of microscopic beings, among these we count viruses that are acellular beings , that is, they do not have cells (neither eukaryotic nor prokaryotic) , nor the vital functions that microscopic living beings such as bacteria usually possess. or fungi, since these beings need to invade and infect cellular organisms in order to replicate, in other words they are parasitic beings that hijack the cells they invade so that they fulfill the metabolic functions necessary for the reproduction of their genetic material.

Viruses themselves do not have the basic characteristics with which we usually classify living beings, since they need the infestation and parasitization of cells of other organisms in order to fulfill reproductive functions. They are composed of genetic material, this being DNA or RNA, the viruses dividing into either of the two genetic groups of nucleic acids, and in turn being in a subgroup that depends on whether their genetic material is single-stranded or double-stranded. .
Depending on the nature of the virus, these can be spread in different ways , transmitted via water, air, by direct infection after contact with infected tissues, people or animals (through bites or scratches, blood transfusions, use of infected utensils, sexual transmission, through food, or drinking water, etc.), is the case, for example, of airborne viruses such as influenza, or direct transmission such as rabies or HIV AIDS (in this case mainly through sexual transmission).

Viruses have a high degree of mutability , that is, they have a high rate of changes and adaptations, which makes it difficult to combat them both due to their own organic defenses, as well as through medications and vaccines. This is because, for example, in the case of influenza, natural mutations produce strains of the same type of virus that have different levels of aggressiveness (“virulence”), being that some strains are usually seasonal, or only affect one type of organism. in particular (birds, pigs, horses, dogs, cats, or man), but sometimes mutations create viral strains that cross these borders producing diseases that can become epidemics or pandemics, depending on the particular strain and its degree of virulence.

Viruses, after their infestation and infection of organisms, cause several infectious diseases, which in most cases can have serious consequences and can even cause the death of the infected organism. In man, many of the most dangerous diseases are due precisely to the action of pathogenic viruses, which attack the body, infecting cells, affecting organs and systems. This is the case of some viral diseases such as the flu, mumps, scarlet fever, smallpox, measles, dengue, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), herpes, poliomyelitis, chicken pox, hepatitis, pneumonia viruses, rubella and rabies, among many others that are produced by the intrusion of these organisms into our body.

The types of viruses are:

1. Biological viruses : are viruses that affect the immune system of an organism or living being. They generally attack some aspect of the living being, such as a system. Biological viruses are actually small particles that cannot be seen with the naked eye by people. Therefore, its contagion is very easy and more or less frequent. Viruses can cause serious diseases and mainly attack genetic material. To combat them, medicine has developed different means, although the most common is the use of antibiotics.

2. Computer viruses: computer viruses are programs of this type that attack a computer or computer system, causing it to malfunction. Most of the time, viruses of this type are transmitted through files or documents, making them impossible to identify. Likewise, computer viruses mainly attack the information or the hard disk of a computer, causing it to malfunction. To solve this problem, there are currently programs known as antivirus.

3.  DNA viruses : this is a type of biological virus that is usually the most common. It is characterized because the genome replication of most of these viruses occurs in the nucleus of the cell. Therefore, DNA viruses enter the body through fusion with the cell membrane or by endocytosis. Within this type of virus there is a subclassification: double-stranded and single-stranded DNA viruses.

4.  Double-stranded DNA viruses : they  are a subtype of DNA viruses. Therefore they maintain essentially the same characteristics as the latter. However, double-stranded cirus is characterized in that its genetic material is made up of double-stranded DNA and is replicated using DNA polymerase.

5.  Single-stranded DNA virus : as its name implies, this type of virus has a single-stranded DNA genetic material and is replicated using a DNA polymerase that is dependent on DNA itself.

6.  RNA viruses : this type of virus is unique, since its configuration is not structured from DNA but from RNA. Thus, viruses of this type use only Ribonucleic Acid as genetic material. Within this type of virus there is a subclassification that is made up of several other types such as double-stranded, positive single-stranded, negative single-stranded, reverse-transcribed single-stranded and reverse-transcribed double-stranded.

7.  Double-stranded RNA viruses : Obviously, this type of virus is defined by having double-stranded RNA within its genome. In this way they replicate in the cytoplasm and do not need the polymerases of the cells as DNA-type viruses do.

8.  Positive single-stranded RNA virus : This type of virus has positive-sense single-stranded RNA as genetic material. Likewise, their replication happens in the cytoplasm and they are not so dependent on the cell cycle.

9.  Negative single-stranded RNA virus : it has similar characteristics to the previous case, except that, as its name indicates, the RNA of this type of virus has a negative meaning as genetic material.

10.   Single-stranded retrotranscyte virus : this type of virus has a single-stranded RNA in its genome that reproduces in the host cell by reverse transcription. This means that from DNA according to the RNA template.

11.  Retranscite double-stranded DNA virus : this type of virus undergoes the same process as the previous ones, only in this case a DNA genome uses an RNA intermediate to replicate.

12.  Boot viruses – This is one of the earliest known types of computer viruses and, in fact, one of the most popular and widespread on many computers. It is a virus that is activated at the time of initialization of the operating system. Therefore, when the computer is turned on and the operating system is loaded, the virus is activated.

13.  Time bomb virus : as the name implies, this type of virus is programmed to damage the computer at a specific time. Therefore, they can be activated immediately or later, depending on your programming.

14.  Viruses Worms : This type of virus does not actually damage the computer severely. Its intention is to spread rapidly through as many computers as possible according to certain systems or conditions. For example, it is very common for this type of virus to spread via email addresses stored by the originally infected computer.

15.  Trojan viruses : are viruses that allow one person to remotely access another’s computer and collect data. Therefore, its main function is to steal confidential information such as passwords or bank accounts. Its spread is very frequent through the internet.

16. Hijackers : they are a type of virus whose function is to hijack or alter internet pages. In this way, the visualization of certain sites becomes difficult and annoying.

17. Keylogger : this type of virus concentrates on obtaining information that is typed on the internet. Thus, with the help of this type of virus, information about email accounts, passwords, etc. can be obtained. The user does not realize that his activity is being monitored.

Examples of viruses

1. Adenovirus
2. alpharetrovirus
3. arbovirus
4. Arbovirus (encephalitis)
5. Arenaviridae
6. avian type C retrovirus group
7. Avihepadnavirus
8. Baculoviridae
9. Birnavirus
10. cytomegalovirus
11. coronavirus
12. Herpes simplex (herpes simplex)
13. Herpesvirus (herpes virus)
14. Influenzavirus A (influenza)
15. Influenzavirus A H10N7 (influenza)
16. Influenzavirus A H1N1 (influenza)
17. Influenzavirus A H1N2 (influenza)
18. Influenzavirus A H2N2 (influenza)
19. Influenzavirus A H3N2 (influenza)
20. Influenzavirus A H5N1 (influenza)
21. Influenzavirus A H7N2 (influenza)
22. Influenzavirus A H7N3 (influenza)
23. Influenzavirus A H7N7 (influenza)
24. Influenzavirus A H9N2 (influenza)
25. Megavirus chilensis (influenza)
26. Myxovirus Mumps (Mumps)
27. papillomavirus
28. Papovavirus (human papillomavirus)
29. poliovirus
30. Poliovirus (Poliomyelitis)
31. Poxvirus (contagious molluscum disease virus)
32. Rhinovirus
33. Rotavirus
34. Variola major
35. Variola virus (Smallpox)
36. HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
37. HIV or AIDS virus
38. Aujezky
virus 39. Epstein-Barr virus
40. Hemorrhagic fever virus
41. Herpes simplex virus

42. Encephalitis virus

43. Epatitis A virus

44. Epatitis C virus

45. Erythroblastosis virus

46. Hemorrhagic fever virus
47. Hepatitis A virus
48. Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis B
49. Hepatitis C virus
50. Varicella Zoster virus (Varicella)

51. Mosaic virus

52. Human papilloma virus


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