To the south of Germany, close to the border with France and Switzerland, in the state of Baden-Wurtenberg, there is a mountainous massif with so thick vegetation that the Romans already called the Black Forest, because it did not allow the passage of the light. Currently, it represents one of the main National Parks and Natural tourist center of Germany. It is a place full of life, with a lot of variety in its flora and fauna. In fact, one of the aspects that creates the most curiosity is what fauna there is that can adapt to living in an area where the sun’s rays get little penetration.
What is and where is the Black Forest
As we said, the Black Forest is a mountainous massif with abundant and thick vegetation mainly composed of ferns , firs and foxgloves ( Digitalis purpurea ). This forest extends 160 km to the north of Germany, bordering the city of Kalsruhe and Basel to the south and has an approximate width of between 30 and 60 km. Its main cities are Freiburg to the South and Freudenstadt to the North.
It is believed that the origin of this massif was a division in a mountainous system that included a trench that crossed the river Rhine. In this way, a mountain range and a massif were formed to the west of the river and to the east, the Black Forest .
The climate that we can find in this jungle is typical of a mountainous area, with significant humidity in the rocky areas (higher in summer), and small increases in temperature in summer and decreases in winter, although the presence of an abundant wooded area , dampens very sudden changes in temperature, so the variations are small.
Among the fauna of this area, some of the most representative animal species of the Black Forest stand out :
- The red squirrel ( Sciurus vulgaris ).
- Wild boar ( Sus scrofa ).
- El corzo (Capreolus capreolus).
- El gato mountains ( Felis silvestris )
- Grouse ( Tetrao urogallus ). Which is currently a threatened species.
In the Black Forest Nature Reserve we can also find species of primates, cats, beetles, butterflies or birds. In addition, the jungle has had the reintroductions of:
- The boreal or European lynx ( Lynx lynx ).
- The Wolf ( Canis Lupus ).
- The European bison ( Bison bonasus ).
To these species must be added the endemisms that inhabit the jungle, among them, cows of the rare Hinterwald breed , the great worm Lumbricus badensis , horses of a breed that only inhabits this jungle, the aforementioned western grouse or the common nutcracker ( Nucifraga caryocatactes ), a species of passerine bird.
The Black Forest is a place of immense natural wealth and, therefore, if we visit it, it is worth knowing which places are of interest and what we can see in them:
- Lake Mummel (Mummelsee): a small glacial lake in the vicinity of the highest peak in the southern part of the forest, the Hornisgrinde peak (1,164 m). At the top there is a viewpoint, from which it is possible to have a view of the entire extension of the forest and the valley of the river Rhine. Legend has it that this lake was the home of the King of Mummelsee and the spirits of the water.
- Triberg Waterfall and the Gutach River: there are a total of seven waterfalls, which form respective granite steps, through which the Gutach River runs, which is a short tributary. This system accumulates a total unevenness of 164 m. It is so named because this system is located near the German city of Triberg. It is an area about which there are also various legends.
- Lake Titisee: like Lake Mummelsee, it is a glacial lake, but larger and deeper (up to about 2 km long). The lake becomes frozen during the winter season. The lake belongs to the German town of Titisee-Neustadt and is currently a great attraction for tourism.
- Mount Feldberg – Highest peak in the entire forest (at 1,493m), making it one of the best places to get a panoramic view of the entire Black Forest and surrounding mountains. The nearest town is Feldberg, which at 1,277 m high is the highest town in Germany.
- Lake Feldsee: under Mount Felberg, this glacial lake is situated at an altitude of 1,111 m. It is a lake whose measurements are about 300 meters and 33 deep. It is connected to Lake Titisee by the Seebach river. It is a protected lake, as the fern Isoetes echinospora , a unique plant species in all of Germany, grows in its vicinity .
- Monte Belchen: third highest mountain in the jungle (1,414 m) and a Nature Reserve for its unique vegetation and animals.