Curiosities

What is the geosphere and its parts

When we think of our planet, the first thing that usually comes to mind are immense landscapes with mountains and forests, or wide and extensive seas, with their dark regions and others closer to the coast and full of life. However, the great immensity of planet Earth is formed by its interior, which is a vast mass of materials with different characteristics that make up what is called the geosphere. However, can you say exactly what the geosphere and its parts are , and how are each of them different?

What is the geosphere and what are its main parts

Geosphere is called the part of the planet that is formed from the surface of the planet to its interior . In other words, the atmosphere, which is also part of the planet, would be outside this definition. The geosphere is divided into different parts:

  • Cortex.
  • Mantle.
  • Core.

These, in turn, also have their different parts. The origin of this structure is in the very nature of the materials that make up the planet. Originally, planet Earth was an incandescent mass of matter formed from the union of dust and space matter that, little by little, and as it cooled, took the shape it currently has. Furthermore, due to the effect of gravity, the heaviest matter tended to concentrate in the planet’s core, while the less dense one rose to the more superficial layers. Finally, when the temperature dropped enough outside, the crust cooled, which subsequently led to the formation of the oceans and the atmosphere as we know them, which also allowed the development of life.

Each of the parts of the geosphere has its own characteristics, which makes them unique compared to the rest of the parts of the planet.

The nucleus , as its name suggests, is the deepest part of the planet , so it is located in the center of the terrestrial sphere . When talking about the nucleus, two parts are usually differentiated:

  • The inner core.
  • The outer core.

The nucleus is a solid part, although this is due to its very high density, since it is also the hottest point on the planet .

The core is made up mainly of heavy elements such as iron, nickel, uranium and gold among many other materials. This is because, due to their weight, during the planetary differentiation process, these materials ended up in the deepest part of the planet, as well as other lighter ones, but because they were attached to the heavy ones, they were also washed away. to the depths.

Most important characteristics of the mantle

As with the nucleus, the mantle is divided into an internal and external mantle . However, in the case of the mantle, we are not dealing with a solid structure but a liquid one. In fact, it is made up mainly of magma , which is the viscous and incandescent substance that emerges from volcanoes during eruptions and, when it comes into contact with the atmosphere, is called lava.

The mantle has a wider combination of materials, so you can find heavy and light elements. Because it is a liquid structure, it is also a structure that is in constant motion . This entails what is called geological activity, which is manifested mainly in earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and in the activity of plate tectonics.

Keep in mind that the crust is the outer solid part of the planet , but this was not always the case. During the formation of planet Earth, it gradually cooled down, and, in fact, it continues to do so. This initial heat ended up dispersing towards the outside of the planet and, consequently, the surface layers were cooling, which resulted in a solid surface floating on the liquid mantle and that, precisely by insulating the crust, can preserve its temperature. much longer.

The Earth’s crust is also where the largest amount of light elements that make up the geosphere are gathered. In fact, materials such as iron, lead, uranium or gold are difficult to find on the planet’s surface precisely because of this situation. In fact, these heavier materials come from only two sources. Either they remained on the planet’s surface during the planetary differentiation process carried away by lighter materials, or they arrived at our planet after the solidification of the crust through meteorites and asteroids and, when colliding with a solid surface, were not they sank and remained in the crust.

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