What is wind energy

Did you know that electrical energy can be generated from the force of the wind? It falls within the renewable energies and, in addition, it is the most efficient of all. With wind energy, emissions of large tons of CO2 into the atmosphere and the generation of polluting waste are avoided. Currently, a little more than 3% of the electricity consumed in the world comes from wind energy and an efficient use of it contributes to sustainable development.

What is eolic energy

Wind energy is that which is obtained from the force of the wind , also called the kinetic energy of the wind and is used to produce electricity. We are facing a renewable energy , since the wind is a renewable resource , which is also clean and respectful with the environment. This does not mean that it is harmless or that it does not have any negative impact, all things do, but in this case it is a renewable energy with a very low environmental impact , compared to non-renewable energies or other renewables, and that turns out to be very efficient.

How Wind Power Works

In order to take advantage of the wind and generate electricity, it is necessary to build wind farms with which all the possible power will be extracted from this renewable energy. These parks are usually located in unpopulated territories, to avoid an impact on the inhabitants. Wind farms are designed with wind turbines , which are the devices that are responsible for converting the kinetic energy produced by the movement of the wind into electrical energy and the operation of wind energy thanks to these is as follows:

  1. Wind turbines have a weather vane in the upper part that indicates the direction of the wind and this makes it possible for them to rotate on the tower, in which they are located, to orient themselves towards the direction of the wind.
  2. A wind turbine has blades or blades that rotate, they are made of light and resistant materials that make it easier to move. The blades move even in light winds and with winds exceeding 90 km / h the wind turbine is braked for safety.
  3. These blades are attached to a turbine through the hub and this, in turn, is attached to the slow shaft, which rotates at the same speed as the blades, between 7 and 12 revolutions per minute.
  4. However, this speed is not enough to produce electricity, that is why a multiplier that increases more than 100 times the speed is necessary, to transfer it to another axis called fast.
  5. This shaft reaches up to more than 1,500 revolutions per minute and is connected to a generator that transforms kinetic energy into electrical energy.
  6. The electrical energy generated is conducted by the tower to its base as direct current and a converter transforms it into alternating current, which is what we use in our day to day life.
  7. The alternating current goes to a transformer to raise its voltage (20-66Kv) and thus be able to transport it throughout the park.
  8. The energy reaches the substation, through cables, to raise the voltage again, converting the energy into high voltage energy .
  9. Once the high voltage energy is obtained, it will go to the evacuation line, from here the electricity is transferred to all the facilities that are connected to the distribution network, from where the electrical energy is transported to the homes .

This is how the wind turbines in wind farms work and how the kinetic energy of the wind is transformed into electrical energy.

This is a list of wind farms[1] that serve as good examples of wind energy :

  • Fântânele-Cogealac Wind Farm: it is located in Romania and has an operating capacity of 600MW, being among the largest parks in the world. The energy produced in this park represents approximately one tenth of all green energy production produced in the country.
  • Gansu Wind Complex: it is located in Gansu, China. This complex is made up of exactly 100 wind farms and has an operating capacity of 20,000 MW.
  • Muppandal Wind Farm – Built in a South Indian town called Muppandal. It is located in this area since it is a mountainous area exposed to the wind from the Arabian Sea. The construction of this park, which has a capacity of 1,500 MW, benefited the town by supplying it with electricity. However, it is expected for this year 2020 that the capacity to produce energy will be 26,200 MWh.
  • Shepherds Flat Wind Farm: this is the 5th largest wind farm in the world located in the United States between the counties of Gilliam and Morrow and it has an operating capacity of 845 MW. With the energy generated in this parking lot, approximately 235,000 homes are supplied.
  • Texas Wind Farm: it is the sixth largest in the world, has 627 wind turbines and has an installed capacity of 781.5 MW.
  • Capricorn Ridge Wind Farm: It is also located in Texas and is made up of 342 wind turbines with an operating capacity of 662.5 MW. This park supplies electricity to more than 220,000 houses and avoids the emission of 920,000 tons of greenhouse gases.

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